Diesel Engine Technology Engineering Academy

This Academy covers the diesel engine engineering principles and the role it can play in the electrification of the transportation system. Several types of diesel engines are addressed with a review of their efficiency including how they might support the drive towards electrification. It is an intensive learning experience comprised of lecture and structured practical sessions, including a team-solved case study problem and/or a review and analysis of current issues facing the diesel industry. Evening sessions are included.

Attendees will receive a copy of the textbook, Diesel Emissions and Their Control, by lead instructor Magdi K. Khair and W. Addy Majewski.

Hundreds of professionals from across Europe, Asia, and the Americas have benefited from the Diesel Engine Technology Engineering Academy from SAE. Since 1999, this Engineering Academy has been the source for comprehensive engine technology training. Professionals from companies like Infineum, Ford Motor Co., AVL, MAHLE, Robert Bosch, Komatsu, John Deere, BorgWarner, Eaton, Shell, Volvo, and numerous others have looked to SAE and the Diesel Engine Technology Engineering Academy for this technical training.

Practical Component

This Academy includes several practical activities, including a team-solved case study and a technical facility tour.  Group discussion of current issues facing the diesel industry may also be included.

***Depending on the location of the Academy, please be advised this course may involve one or more of the following: driving and/or riding in a vehicle; participating in a vehicle demonstration; and/or taking part in an offsite tour using outside transportation. You may be required to sign a waiver on-site and produce a valid driver's license from your state/country of residence.***

 Pre-Academy Activity

Prior to the Academy, you will be asked to complete a pre-assessment. Results will be shared with the lead instructor to help customize the learning experience to specific attendee needs.

What Will You Learn

By attending this Academy, you will be able to:
  • Articulate basic diesel engine terminology and principles
  • Describe the key features of the basic types of diesel engines
  • Compare various diesel fuel injection systems and their components
  • Analyze the effects of different fuels, including low carbon fuels on engine performance
  • Compare the function and applicability of various air management systems
  • Detail the operation of post-combustion emission control systems
  • Discuss emerging diesel engine technologies

Is This Course For You

This academy will be especially valuable for engineers who design powertrains in the following types of vehicles:
  • Passenger cars
  • Light trucks
  • Heavy trucks
  • Off-highway vehicles
  • Farm machinery

Materials Provided

This data is not available at this time

Course Requirements

This data is not available at this time

Topics

DAY 1
  • Diesel Engine and the Electrification of Transportation
  • Introduction and Case Study/Issues Facing the Diesel Engine
  • Thermodynamics
    • First Law
      • Energy balance for a closed system
      • Energy balance for an open system
      • Property Evaluation
    • Second Law
      • Definition of entropy
      • Irreversibility
      • Entropy balance for a closed system
      • Entropy balance for an open system
      • Definition of availability
      • Availability balance
    • Air standard cycle analysis
      • Otto cycle
      • Compression ignition
      • Atkinson
      • Miller cycles
      • Lessons to be learned from air standard cycles
        • Effect of compression ratio
        • Effect of fuel H/C ratio
        • Effect of combustion timing
    • Chemical reactions
      • Stoichiometry (balancing chemical reactions)
      • Definition of equivalence ratio
      • Calculating exhaust gas composition from F/A ratio
      • Calculating F/A ratio from exhaust gas composition
      • Computation of brake specific emissions
    • Energy equation with chemical reactions (combustion reactions)
      • Adiabatic flame temperature
      • Higher/lower heating value
    • Detailed example of energy balance on engine
      • Fuel energy in=coolant + exhaust + work out
  • Thermodynamics II
  • Fuel Injection Systems I
    • Requirements and function
    • Injection timing
    • Injection metering and rate shaping
    • The fuel injection system
  • The Fuel Injection Systems II
    • Types of fuel injection systems and main components
    • Diesel control
      • Mechanical Governor
      • Electronic control systems
  • Fuel Injection Systems III
    • Nozzle and nozzle holders
    • Application
    • European Diesel Engines
  • Case Study Team Session
*Dinner is provided on Monday evening. Approximate end time of Day 1 is 7:30 p.m.

DAY 2

  • Fuels Technologies
    • Global Energy Supply, US Fuels Consumption
    • Diesel vs. Gasoline Fuels: Composition, Retail Prices
    • Basic Refining Processes
    • Petroleum diesel Fuels
      • Additives: Deposits Control, Cold Flow, Lubricity, Cetane Improvers
      • Key Performance Characteristics of ULSD
    • Alternative Fuels & Performance Challenges
      • Biodiesels
      • Gaseous Fuels:
        • Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
        • Compressed Natural Gas
        • DME
    • Synthetic Fuel: GTL, methanol, ethanol
  • Combustion in Compression Ignition Engines
    • Basic combustion theory, definitions and concepts
    • Complete combustion vs. equilibrium composition (dissociation)
    • Equilibrium assumption vs. kinetics (rate limited reactions)
    • Global vs. elementary reactions
    • Basic flame theory (Ignition, flame propagation & speed, quenching, flammability limits)
    • Autoignition theory
    • Hydrocarbon combustion
    • Laminar and turbulent flame speeds
    • Premixed and diffusion combustion
    • Diesel combustion
    • Phenomenological description of diesel combustion
    • Ignition delay, premixed combustion, diffusion combustion
    • Burning rate diagram (heat release diagram)
    • Combustion chamber design considerations
    • Relationship between air motion, fuel injection system (injection pressure, number of nozzle holes, orifice size), and combustion chamber geometry (bowl size and shape)
    • Modeling the diesel combustion process
    • Fuel-air standard Otto cycle/Diesel cycle (Assumptions, Thermodynamics)
    • Single zone models-heat release type (Assumptions, Thermodynamics)
    • Multi-zone models, phenomenological models
    • CFD modeling (some modellings can be integrated later in the 'Simulation' session)
    • Lessons to be learned from each approach
    • Advantages/disadvantages of each approach
    • Heat release analysis
    • Collection of cylinder pressure data (transducers, encoders, data acquisition)
    • Analysis of cylinder pressure data (smoothing, frequency characteristics, mean effective pressure)
    • Heat release model (Krieger and Borman assumptions)
    • Interpretation of heat release diagrams
  • CI Combustion and Emissions in DI Engines
    • Review of previous discussion on diesel combustion
    • Premixed/diffusion combustion
    • Effect of low temperature, low cetane number
    • Effect of turbocharging
    • Factors affecting the combustion process
    • Injection pressure and injection rate
    • Air swirl
    • Atomization
    • Penetration
    • Drop size distribution
    • Vaporization
    • Ignition delay
    • Combustion influence on fuel economy
    • Effect of heat release (optimization of air flow, fuel injection and combustion bowl)
    • Effect of heat transfer - Compare to adiabatic engine results
    • Combustion influence on emissions
    • Origin of hydrocarbon emissions
    • Origin of carbon monoxide
    • Origin of NOx emissions
    • Relation to premixed combustion, aromatic content of fuel, cetane number
    • Origin of particulates and smoke
    • Relation to diffusion combustion
    • Introduction of HCCI/RCCI and potential challenges?
    • Effect of fuel sulfur
    • Tradeoffs
    • BSFC vs. NOx
    • NOx vs. particulates
    • HC vs. ignition delay
    • Effect of ignition timing on heat release rate and cylinder pressure
    • Effect of timing of combustion, ignition delay
    • Effect of injection pressure on heat release rate and cylinder pressure
    • Effect of mixing rate on diffusion combustion; (effect of EGR, fuel cetane number on combustion and emission)
  • Air Management Systems
    • Turbocharging and supercharging
    • Purpose of turbocharging
    • Description of turbocharger
    • Performance of turbomachinery
    • Types of turbochargers (fixed, variable, waste-gate)
    • Special arrangements (sequential, turbo compounding)
    • New role of turbochargers in EGR control
    • Superchargers
    • Mechanically driven
    • Electrically driven
    • Hydraulically driven
    • Role of superchargers in modern engines
  • Variable Compression Ratio
    • Background
    • Potential Benefits
    • Combustion Control through Added Flexibility
    • Benefits for Part Load Operation
    • Effect on Exhaust Gas Recirculation Rates
    • Effects on Startability
  • Case Study or Discussion of Diesel Issues Team Session
*Dinner is provided on Tuesday evening. Approximate end time of DAY 2 is 8:00 p.m.

DAY 3

  • The Role of Lube Oil in Modern Engines
    • How are Lubricants Specified
    • Viscosity Grades, Quality
    • Lubricant Performance Categories:
    • North America
    • Europe
    • Japan
    • OEM Specifications
    • Future Developments - Low Emission Fluids
    • Composition of Typical Crankcase Lubricants
    • Drivers for Novel Lubricant Development
    • Aftertreatment Compatible Lubricants: SAPS
    • Beyond Current Lubricant Specification - System Approach
  • In-Cylinder Measures to Control Emissions I
  • In-Cylinder Measures to Control Emissions II
  • Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment I
    • Exhaust system-based emission reduction technologies (aftertreatment)
    • NOx reduction catalysts, and passive NOx absorber?
    • Selective Catalytic Reduction -- With Supplemental HC; With Urea and Ammonia Slip Catalyst?
    • Lean NOx Traps
    • Diesel Particulate Filters -- Active Regeneration Systems; Passive Regeneration Systems
    • SCR on Filter
  • Simulation: Digital Engineering and Engine System Optimization
    • Fundamentals of engine system simulation
      • Why 'digital engineering'?
      • Where does the simulation fit in a product development process?
    • Differences, trade-off between and integration of 0D, 1D and 3D simulations
      • Capabilities and constraints of each tool
      • Understanding the gap between physical and simplified digital world
      • Correlation and calibration of digital models
    • Applications of 0D, 1D and 3D simulations in engine system and component developments and optimizations
      • Modeling of air handling system: Turbocharger
      • Modeling of combustion system and aftertreatment
      • Modeling of vehicle thermal management and waste heat recovery system
      • Modeling of engine and hybrid electric vehicle for optimal integration
    • Future of engine control and OBD compliance
      • 'Virtual engine plant' to interface with engine control and OBD
      • Comprehensive Component Monitor (CCM) and prevention of emission control tampering
  • Diesel Exhaust After Treatment II
*Approximate end time of DAY 3 is 5:30 p.m.

DAY 4

  • Engine Controls
    • Engine Controls and Diagnostics
    • Electronic fuel injection system control
    • Control system architectures and hardware
    • Fundamentals of control
    • Design approaches for diesel engine controls
    • Development methods
    • Application requirements -- Fuel injection volume, timing and rate shaping
    • Ancillary system control and integration
    • Variable geometry turbocharger control
    • EGR scheduling and control
    • Control of other subsystems - today and tomorrow
    • Adaptive controls and the future
  • On-Board Diagnostics
    • Legal Requirements
    • Fault Detection
    • Fault Resolution
    • Diagnostic Tools - OBD and General
    • Future Paths
    • Noise
    • Simulation in Diesel Engines
  • Tour - TBD
  • Case Study or Discussion of Diesel Issues Team Session
Dinner is provided on Thursday evening. Approximate end time of DAY 4 is 8:30 p.m.

DAY 5

  • Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment III
  • Emerging Technologies
  • Academy Wrap-up and Evaluation

*Approximate end time of Day 5 is 3:00 p.m.

The order in which the topics are presented is subject to change.