This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Synerjet Powered Spaceliner: Aircraft Operability and Economics “Without Wings and Wheels”
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 28, 1998 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Transportation aspects of commercial spaceflight in the opening decades of the Twenty-first Century are envisioned. A specific Spaceliner concept is described, one predicated on combined-cycle airbreathing/rocket (“Synerjet”) propulsion. Its technical literature recorded heritage is reviewed. NASA's long-term goals, and its ongoing program relevant to this class of transportation concepts are discussed.
A key observation, one of potentially distant, but great significance to the future of aviation and the air carrier industry, is that Spaceliner class systems, once available, can -- in addition to providing orbital payload service -- fly transglobally, conducting point-to-point terrestrial transportation services, all at ‘highest speed.” Providing an aviation/air-carrier perspective on all of this, in an annex paper attached, the candid views of an esteemed former airlines executive, the late Willis Player, are highlighted.
Key Reference and Basic Definitions
Note: A glossary of abbreviations is provided (p 14)
SAE International Publication PT-54, ‘The Synerjet Engine, Airbreathing/Rocket Combined-Cycle Propulsion for Tomorrow's Space Transports,” compiled and edited by the author, 1997
Synerjet: A new kind of propulsion system in which advanced airbreathing and rocket propulsion technologies and selected hardware elements, are synergistically integrated to provide an efficient, lightweight engine. one capable of agilely Operating in multimode fashion over a very wide flight-speed and altitude range, in conducting both the ascent and descent phases of the overall mission profile.
Spaceliner: A fully reusable, operationally dependable and highly affordable aerospace transportation vehicle powered by Synerjet engines. envisioned to become available in the early decades of the 21st Century.
In brief, the future transatmospheric spacefaring counterpart of today's commercial transport aircraft.
|Technical Paper||European Aircraft Steering Systems|
|Technical Paper||Orbiter Post-Tire Failure and Skid Testing Results|
|Technical Paper||Aircraft Performance Degradation - the Effects of Inflight Icing upon Lift, Drag and Propulsive Efficiency|
CitationEscher, W., "Synerjet Powered Spaceliner: Aircraft Operability and Economics “Without Wings and Wheels”," SAE Technical Paper 985526, 1998, https://doi.org/10.4271/985526.
- “Role of the Composite (Rocket/Air-Using) Powerplant in Future Space Transportation Systems,” NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Memorandum Report IN-FPO-2-63 26 April 1963 Huntsville, Alabama
- Flornes, B.J. “A Study of Composite Propulsion Systems for Advanced Launch Vehicle Applications,” The Marquardt Corporation Final Report No. 25,194 under NASA Contract NAS7-377 (Basic Study) The Marquardt Corporation September 1966 Van Nuys, California, U.S.A. 3
- “Composite (Rocket/Airbreathing) Engines: Key to the Advanced (Non-Staged) Space Transport Vehicle,” The University of Tennessee Space Institute 18-22 August 1969 Tullahoma, Tennessee
- “The Synerjet Engine - New Capabilities for Space Transportation Systems,” Escher Technology Associates Publication PM-6, November 1971 St. Johns, Michigan
- “Synerjet: Beyond the Shuttle,” Spaceflight British Interplanetary Society 14 11 November 1972
- “The Synerjet Engine: Key to Spaceliner,” November 1984 St. Johns, Michigan
- “Synerjet for Earth/Orbit Propulsion: Revisiting the 1966 NASA/Marquardt Composite (Airbreathing/Rocket) Propulsion Study,” SAE Paper 851163 SAE Aerospace Requirements Conference 20-23 May 1985 Washington, D.C.
- Doughty D.L. Robinson J.W. Puening R.L “A Combined Cycle(Airbreathing/Rocket) Powered VTOVL Single Stage Orbital Transport,” AIAA Paper No. 86-1388, presented at the 22nd Joint Propulsion Conference 16-18 June 1986 Huntsville, Alabama
- Foster, R.W. Robinson, J.W. “Air Augmented Rocket Propulsion Concepts Study,” Astronautics Corporation of America final report under Air Force Contract F04611-86-C-0094 31 January 1988 Madison, Wisconsin
- Foster, R. W. Robinson, J. W. “Studies of an Extensively Axisymmetric Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) Engine Powered SSTO Vehicle,” Paper AIAA-89-2294 25th Joint Propulsion Conference July 1989 Monterey, California
- Schnurstein R.E. Weisberg S.J. “Airbreathing Propulsion's Contribution to Tomorrow's Space Transports: Enter Combined-Cycle Propulsion,” The 34th ASME International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition 5-8 June 1989 Toronto, Ontario, Canada
- “Synerjet Propulsion and The Trimarket Opportunity: Orbital, Transglobal and Lunar Transportation Services With One Vehicle Type,” Paper AIAA-92-3716 28th Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit 6-8 July 1992 Nashville, Tennessee
- Czysz Paul A. “Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle Powered Spaceliner Concept,” Paper IAF-93-S.4.478 44th Congress of the International Astronautical Federation 16-22 October 1993 Graz, Austria
- “The Overlooked Corner of the Specific Impulse/Flight-Speed Plot for Earth-to-Orbit Space Transports: Powered Cruiseback, Loiter and Landing SAE Paper 941169 Aerospace Atlantic Conference and Exposition 18-22 April 1994 Dayton, Ohio
- “Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC) Powered Spaceliner Class Vehicles Can Advantageously Employ Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL),” Paper AIAA-94-2795 36th Joint Propulsion Conference 27-29 June 1994 Indianapolis, Indiana Paper AIAA-95-6145 Sixth International Aerospace Planes and Hypersonic Technologies Conference 3-7 April 1995 Chattanooga, Tennessee
- “Synerjet and Spaceliner,” A thought starter The Space Transportation Propulsion Technology Symposium Penn State June 1990 The Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle Propulsion Technology Workshop University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) March 1992
- “A Winning Combination for Tomorrow's Spaceliners,” Aerospace America February 1996
- Olds J.R. Foster R.W. “A Leading Hypersonic Combined-Cycle Propulsion Applications: Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) Using Supercharged Ejector Scramjet (SESJ) Engines,” Penn State PERC 9th Annual Symposium 1-2 October 1997 Cleveland, Ohio
- Olds J.R. Foster R.W. “A Vertical Takeoff and Landing Combined-Cycle Propulsion Single State to Orbit Case,” Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) Study Technical Interchange Meeting 22-24 July 1997 Huntsville, Alabama
- Mankins J.C. Howell J.T. “Combined Airbreathing/Rocket Powered Highly Reusable Space Transports: A Progress Report,” Paper AIAA 96-4516a, presented at the 7th International Hypersonic Systems & Technology Conference 18-22 November 1996 Norfolk, Virginia