This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
PDA Measurements of Fuel Effects on Atomization and Spray Structure from a Diesel Engine Injector
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 19, 1998 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of fuel properties on atomization and spray structure of a diesel engine fuel injector, based on PDA (Phase Doppler Anemometry) measurements. Few studies have addressed the question of how fuels affect droplet size and spray structure. Thus three diesel fuels were selected: two which broadly represent the range of base fuel properties seen in current European fuels and a third which contained a high treat rate of a detergent-type additive, which, being polar, may have some surface effects which could impact spray formation.
This range of diesel fuels was injected into a high pressure and temperature wind tunnel, using a single hole Bosch injector. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) was used to measure the diameter, velocity and arrival time of spray droplets passing through numerous radial and longitudinal positions in the spray. Most data were collected under quiescent conditions, but an additional number of measurements were made on fuel injected into the tunnel with a gas cross-wind. Not only is this cross-flow representative of many engines, but it enables separation of the droplet sizes based on mass and cross-section, winnowing smaller droplets from the denser core. Careful attention was given to data validation and the incorporation of repeat tests over a long time period, to ensure the data were reliable and could be evaluated statistically.
No difference in droplet diameter larger than the repeatability of 3μm could be detected either for fuels varying in density, volatility and viscosity, or additised with a high treat rate of a detergent-type additive. However, there were small differences between these fuels which could be detected: there was evidence that the fuel treated with detergent additive produced a narrower more penetrating spray. While these effects are not currently understood, it is possible that the detergent may influence the flow inside the nozzle.
CitationYule, A., Akhtar, P., Shrimpton, J., Wagner, T. et al., "PDA Measurements of Fuel Effects on Atomization and Spray Structure from a Diesel Engine Injector," SAE Technical Paper 982544, 1998, https://doi.org/10.4271/982544.
- Pitcher, G Wigley, G. “The droplet dynamics of diesel fuel sprays under ambient and engine conditions” Proc ASME Conf Laser Anemometry 2 571 586 1991
- Behrouz, C. “Preliminary drop size and velocity measurement in dense diesel type sprays” SAE Paper 901673 1990
- Payri F Desantes JM Arregle J Characterisation of DI Sprays in High Density Conditions SAE paper 960774 1996
- Reitz RD Diwakar R Structure of High-Pressure Fuel Sprays SAE Paper 870598 1987
- Tanner FX Liquid Jet Atomisation and Droplet Breakup Modelling of Non-evaporating Diesel Fuel Sprays SAE Paper 970050 1997
- Liu AB Mather D Reitz RD Modelling the Effects of Drop Drag and Breakup on Fuel Sprays SAE Paper 930072 1993
- Hohmann S Klingsporn M Renz U An improved Model to describe Spray Evaporation under Diesel-like conditions SAE paper 960630 1996
- Gosman, AD Clerides, D. “Diesel spray modelling: A review” Proc 13th ILASS-Europe Conference 12 21 ENEL Pisa 1997
- Reitz, RD Bracco, FV “On the dependence of spray angle and other spray parameters on nozzle design and operating conditions” SAE Paper 790494 1979
- Elkotb, M-M. “Fuel atomization for spray modeling” Prog Energy Combust Sci 8 61 91 1982
- Giffen E. Muraszew A The Atomisation of Liquid Fuels Chapman & Hall London 1953
- The European programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) Europia/ACEA 1995
- Yule, AJ Aval, SM “A technique for velocity measurement in diesel sprays” Combustion and Flame 77 385 394 1989
- Pan, G. “A study of the influence of fuel additives on atomization and evaporation of diesel fuel” Dept Mech and Aerospace Eng, Princeton Univ June 1996
- Koo, JY Martin, JK “Ambient gas density effects on droplet diameter and velocity in a transient diesel fuel spray” Proc COMODIA-90 220 230 Tokyo 1990
- Koo J-Y Martin JK Comparisons of Measured Drop Sizes and Velocities in a Transient Fuel Spray with Stability Criteria and Computed PDF's SAE paper 910179 1991
- Siebers DL Liquid-Phase Fuel Penetration in Diesel Sprays SAE paper 980809 1998
- Canaan RE Dee JE Green RM Daly DT The influence of Fuel Volatility on the Liquid-Phase Fuel Penetration in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine SAE paper 980510 1998
- Soteriou C Andrews R Smith M Direct Injection Diesel Sprays and the Effect of Cavitation and Hydraulic Flip on Atomization SAE paper 950080 1995
- Arcoumanis C Gavaises M French B Effect of Fuel Injection Processes on the Structure of Diesel Sprays SAE paper 970799 1997
- Arcoumanis C Gavaises M Nouri JM Abdul-Wahab E Horrocks R Analysis of the Flow in the Nozzle of a Vertical Multi-Hole Diesel Engine Injector SAE paper 980811 1998
- Desantes JM Arregle, Pastor JV Delage A Influence of the fuel characteristic on the injection process in a DI Diesel Engine SAE paper 980802 1998