This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
CFD-Aided Development of Spray for an Outwardly Opening Direct Injection Gasoline Injector
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published February 23, 1998 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
A high pressure outwardly opening fuel injector has been developed to produce sprays that meet the stringent requirements of gasoline direct injection (DI) combustion systems. Predictions of spray characteristics have been made using KIVA-3 in conjunction with Star-CD injector flow modeling. After some modeling iterations, the nozzle design has been optimized for the required flow, injector performance, and spray characteristics. The hardware test results of flow and spray have confirmed the numerical modeling accuracy and the spray quality.
The spray's average Sauter mean diameter (SMD) is less than 15 microns at 30 mm distance from the nozzle. The DV90, defined as the drop diameter such that 90% of the total liquid volume is in drops of smaller diameter, is less than 40 microns. The maximum penetration is about 70 mm into air at atmospheric pressure. An initial spray slug is not created due to the absence of a sac volume.
CitationXu, M. and Markle, L., "CFD-Aided Development of Spray for an Outwardly Opening Direct Injection Gasoline Injector," SAE Technical Paper 980493, 1998, https://doi.org/10.4271/980493.
- Zhao F.-Q. Lai M.-C. Harrington D. L. “A Review of Mixture Preparation and Combustion Control Strategies for Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines,” SAE Paper 970627
- Harada J. Tomita T. Mizuno H. Mashiki Z. Ito Y “Development of a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine,” SAE Paper 970540
- Tomoda T. Sasaki S. Sawada D. Saito A. Sami H “Development of Direct Injection Gasoline Engine - Study of Stratified Mixture Formation,” SAE Paper 970539
- Fraidl G. K. Piock W. F. Wirth M “Gasoline Direct Injection: Actual Trends and Future Strategies for Injection and Combustion Systems,” SAE Paper 960465
- Han Z. Fan L. Reitz R. D. “Multidimensional Modeling of Spray Atomization and Air/Fuel Mixing in a Direct-Injection- Spark-Ignition Engine,” SAE Paper 970884
- Solomon A. Panel Discussion on Direct Injection Gasoline Engines ILASS-Americas '97
- Dodge L. G. “Fuel Preparation Requirements for Direct-Injected Spark Ignition Engines,” SAE Paper 962015
- Kume T. Iwamoto Y. Lida K. Murakami M. Akishino K. Ando H “Combustion Control Technologies for Direct Injection SI Engine,” SAE Paper 960600
- Parrish S. Farrel P “Transient Spray Characteristics of a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignited Fuel Injector,” SAE Paper 970629
- Amsden A. A. O'Rourke P. J. Butler T. D. “KIVA II - A Computer Program for Chemically Reactive Flows with Spray,” Los Alamos Labs 1989
- Amsden A. A. “KIVA-3: A KIVA Program with Block-Structured- Mesh for Complex Geometries,” Los Alamos Labs 1993
- O'Rourke P. J. Amsden A. A. “The Tab Method for Numerical Calculation of Spray Droplet Breakup,” SAE Paper 872089
- Lai M.-C. Zhao F.-Q. Amer A. A. Chue T.-H. “An Experimental and Analytical Investigation of the Spray Structure from Automotive Port Injectors,” SAE Paper 941873
- Croissant K. Kendlbacher C “Requirements for the Engine Management System of Gasoline Direct Injection Engines,” Presentation Technische Akademie Esslingen December 1996
- Toyota Press Information '96 “Direct-Injection 4-Stroke Gasoline Engine,” 1996