This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Injury Risks, Misuse Rates and the Effect of Misuse Depending on the Kind of Child Restraint System
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published November 12, 1997 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The compulsory use of child restraint systems (CRS) in cars which came into force on 1st April 1993 led to a considerable increase in the belting rate of children in Germany, but between 30% and nearly 60% of the children aged 0<12 years are only restrained by an adult belt (lap or three-point belt).
On the basis of a new accident material of the German Motor Insurers (593 restrained children 0 to 12 years involved in 448 car accidents) the injury risk of children being belted with an adult belt only is compared to those injury risks of children being restrained in different types of CRS (415-point belt, 3-point belt, impact shield, booster cushion). The form of restraint „child with an adult belt only” involves disproportionately high risks.
In retrospective accident studies it is relatively difficult to get detailed information about the frequency and the exact kind of CRS misuse. Therefore 250 users of CRS were observed and interviewed. Only in one third of these observations the CRS were correctly mounted; depending on different types of CRS the misuse rates lay between 20 and 90%.
To check up the effect of the most frequent and most severe kinds of misuse 20 crash tests with wrong fitted CRS were carried out; for this reason tests with an ECE sled and with a cut-off car body have been performed. Depending on the kind of CRS a partly considerable reduction of the safety effect of CRS could be observed in case of misuse. Protection against misuse by a proper design has to be given highest priority for the safety improvement of future CRS.
|Technical Paper||Nonfatal Air Bag Deployments Involving Child Passengers|
|Technical Paper||Responses of the Q3, Hybrid III and a Three Year Old Child Finite Element Model Under a Simulated 213 Test|
CitationHummel, T., Langwieder, K., Finkbeiner, F., and Hell, W., "Injury Risks, Misuse Rates and the Effect of Misuse Depending on the Kind of Child Restraint System," SAE Technical Paper 973309, 1997, https://doi.org/10.4271/973309.
SAE 1997 Transactions - Journal of Passenger Cars
Number: V106-6; Published: 1998-09-15
Number: V106-6; Published: 1998-09-15
- FEDERAL GERMAN HIGHWAY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Gladbach, Germany
- EUROPEAN TRANSPORT SAFETY COUNCIL (ETSC) 1996 Seat Belts and Child Restraints - increasing use and optimising performance Brussels, Belgium
- DEJEAMMES, M. ALAUZET, A. LE BRETON, B. 1993 How Child Protection Devices are Used in France 1991 - 1992 Child Occupant Protection, Special Session SAE International SP-986 November 6-8 91 INRETS - LESCO France
- GARDNER, W. T. LEGAULT, F. PEDDER, J. B. 1993 Potential Improvements to the Canadian Child Restraint Regulations Child Occupant Protection, Special Session SAE International SP-986 November 6-8 71 RONA Kinetics and Accociates Ltd. Canada
- LANGWIEDER, K. HUMMEL, TH. 1989 Children in Cars - Their Injury Risks and the Influence of Child Protection Systems 12th International Technical Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles (ESV) Goteborg, Sweden
- LANGWIEDER, K. HUMMEL, TH. 1994 Biomechanical Risk Factors for Children in Cars and Aggravation by Misuse of Restraint Systems XIVth International Technical Conference on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV) Munich, Germany
- LANGWIEDER, K. STADLER, P. HUMMEL, TH. FASTENMEIER, W. FINKBEINER, F. 1997 Federal German Highway Research Institute Bergisch Gladbach, Germany
- 1995 Standardised universal attachment to vehicle (ISOFIX) Child restraint systems (in road vehicles) Sweden
- ASSOCIATION OF DAMAGE INSURERS, VDS 1994 Vehicle Safety 90 - Analysis of Car Accidents Foundations for future research work Institute for Vehicle Safety, GDV Munich, Germany
- ABBREVIATED INJURY SCALE 1990 Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine Des Plaines, IL
- LANGWIEDER, K. HELL, W. WILLSON, H. 1996 Performance of Child Restraint Systems in Real-Life Lateral Collisions Stapp Conference San Diego
- LANGWIEDER, K. HELL, W. LOWNE, R. HUIJSKENS, C. 1996 Side impact to children in cars Experience from international accident analysis and safety tests 15th ESV Conference Melbourne, Australia
- SCHOON, C. C. HUIJSKENS, C. G. HEIJKAMP, A. H. 1992 Misuse of restraint systems for children in the Netherlands IRCOBI Conference Verona, Italy
- CZERNAKOWSKI, w. MÜLLER, M. 1993 Misuse mode and effects analysis - an approach to predict and quantify misuse of child restraint systems Accident Analysis and Prevention 25 323 333
- HUIJSKENS, C. G. 1994 Road vehicles - Child restraint systems - Reduction of misuse risk - Form for field studies ISO/WD 132 15-1, Secretariat: SIS/SMS Sweden Paper: IS0/22/12/WG 1 N 322
- ECE-R 44 Economic Commission for Europe (ECE)
- BELL, R. BURLEIGH, D. CZERNAKOWSKI, W. 1994 ISOFIX: The potential of a universal vehiclelchild restraint interface for misuse reduction and performance enhancement Britax International Ltd. 38th Stapp Conference Fort Lauderdale
- FEDERAL STATISTICAL OFFICE OF GERMANY Wiesbaden, Germany