This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Solid Waste Processing - An Essential Technology for the Early Phases of Mars Exploration and Colonization
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published July 01, 1997 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Terraforming of Mars is the long-term goal of colonization of Mars. However, this process is likely to be a very slow process and conservative estimates involving a synergetic, technocentric approach suggest that it may take around 10,000 years before the planet can be parallel to that of Earth and where humans can live in open systems (Fogg, 1995). Hence, for the foreseeable future, any missions will require habitation within small confined habitats with high biomass to atmospheric mass ratios, thereby requiring that all wastes be recycled. Processing of the wastes will ensure predictability and reliability of the ecosystem and reduce resupply logistics.
Solid wastes, though smaller in volume and mass than the liquid wastes, contain more than 90% of the essential elements required by humans and plants. Two major elements that plants require (K and N) and a microelement (Boron) are not readily available or have not been detected on the surface of Mars and will need to supplied for crop production. These elements can be recovered from CELSS wastes by incineration, and thus they can be made available for crop production on Mars. If left unprocessed, CELSS wastes present a serious risk to human health. This paper describes the use of incineration technology to process solid wastes which ensures that the biogeochemical cycles of ecosystems are maintained, reliability of the closed life support system maintained and the establishment of the early processes necessary for the permanent presence of humans on Mars.
|Technical Paper||Planetary Protection Issues in the Human Exploration of Mars|
|Technical Paper||European Lunar Base Concepts|
|Technical Paper||Using Martian Resources for Life Support|
CitationWignarajah, K., Pisharody, S., Fisher, J., and Flynn, M., "Solid Waste Processing - An Essential Technology for the Early Phases of Mars Exploration and Colonization," SAE Technical Paper 972272, 1997, https://doi.org/10.4271/972272.
- Banin, V. T. (1995) Resources from Near Earth Systems (Editor Jones J. B.) University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
- Bates, M. and Bubenheim, D. L. (1997) Applications of Process Control to Plant-Based Life Support Functions. SAE Tech. Paper No. 972359.
- Carden, J. L. and Browner, R. (1982) Preparation and Analysis of Standardized Waste Samples for Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems. NASA CR No. 166392, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA.
- CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 75th Edition (1994-1995) (Editors Lide D. R. and Frederikse H. P. R.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, LA.
- Fogg, M. J. (1995) Terraforming: Engineering Planetary Environments. Society of Automotive Engineers Publication, Warrendale, PA.
- Garland J. L. and Mackowiak, C. L. (1990) Utilization of the Water Soluble Fraction of Wheat Straw as a Plant Nutrient Source. NASA Tech, Memo. No. 103497
- Garland J. L., Mackowiak, C. L. and Sager J. C. (1993) Hydroponic Crop Production using Recycled Nutrients from Inedible Crop Residues. ICES Tech. Paper No. 932173
- Hanford, A. J. (1997) Advanced Regenerative Life Support System Study. JSC.
- Henninger, D. L., Tri, T. O. and Packham, N. J. C. (1996) NASA's Advanced Life Support System Human-rated Test Facility. Adv. in Space Res. 18 (1/2): 223-232.
- Lighty J. S., Burton, W., Sirdeshpande, S., Pershing, J., Brouwer, J., Kemp, G., Fisher, J. and Pisharody, S. (1997) Waste Incineration for Resource Recovery in a Bioregenerative Life Support System. SAE Tech Paper No. 972429.
- Johnson Space Center (1995) Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants JSC No. 20584.
- Mengel, K, and Kirkby, E. A. (1978) Principles of Plant Nutrition. International Potash Institute, Berne, Switzerland.
- Owen, T., Bar-Nun, A., and Kleinfeld, I. (1992) Possible Cometary Origin of Heavy Noble Gases in the Atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars. Nature 358:43-46.
- Paterson, M., Wignarajah, K., and Bubenheim, D. (1996) Biomass Incineration as a Source of CO2 for Plant Gas Exchange: Phytotoxicity Incinerator Derived Gas and Analysis of Recovered Evapotranspired Water, Life Support and Biospheric Science, 3/4:121-127.
- Stoker C. R., Gooding, J. L., Roush, T., Banin, A., Burt, D., Clark, B. C., Flynn, G. and Gwynne, O. (1995) The Physical and Chemical Properties and the Resource Potential of Martian Surface Soils In Resources of Near Earth Space (Eds. Lewis J. S., Mathis M. S. and Guerriri M. L.), University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.
- Tenhunen, J. D., Hesketh, J. D. and Gates, D. M. (1980) Leaf Photosynthetic Models In Predicting Photosynthesis for Ecosystem Models, Vol. 1. (Editors Hesketh J. D. and Jones J. W.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, LA.
- Upadhye, R. S., Wignarajah, K., and Wydeven, T. (1993) Incineration for Resource Recovery in a Closed Ecological Life Support Systems: Environ. Int. 19:381-392.
- Wignarajah, K. (1995) Mineral Nutrition of Plants (Ch. 9 - pp. 193-221) In Handbook of Plant and Crop Physiology (Ed. Pessarakli M.). Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY.
- Wignarajah, K. and Bubenheim D. L. (1997) Integration of Crop Production with CELSS Waste Manangement, Adv. in Space Res.
- Wydeven, T. and Golub, M. A. Generation Rates and Chemical Composition of Waste Streams in a Typical Crewed Space Habitat. NASA Tech, Memo. No. 102799.