This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
A Numerical Study of Cavitating Flow Through Various Nozzle Shapes
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published May 01, 1997 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The flow through diesel fuel injector nozzles is important because of the effects on the spray and the atomization process. Modeling this nozzle flow is complicated by the presence of cavitation inside the nozzles. This investigation uses a two-dimensional, two-phase, transient model of cavitating nozzle flow to observe the individual effects of several nozzle parameters. The injection pressure is varied, as well as several geometric parameters. Results are presented for a range of rounded inlets, from r/D of 1/40 to 1/4. Similarly, results for a range of L/D from 2 to 8 are presented. Finally, the angle of the corner is varied from 50° to 150°. An axisymmetric injector tip is also simulated in order to observe the effects of upstream geometry on the nozzle flow. The injector tip calculations show that the upstream geometry has a small influence on the nozzle flow. The results demonstrate the model's ability to predict cavitating nozzle flow in several different geometries.
CitationSchmidt, D., Rutland, C., and Corradini, M., "A Numerical Study of Cavitating Flow Through Various Nozzle Shapes," SAE Technical Paper 971597, 1997, https://doi.org/10.4271/971597.
- Montgomery D. T., Chan M., Chang C. T., Farrell P. V., and Reitz R. D., “Effect of Injector Nozzle Hole Size and Number on Spray Characteristics and the Performance of a Heavy Duty D.I. Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper 962002, 1996.
- Bergwerk W., “Flow Pattern in Diesel Nozzle Spray Holes,” Proc. of the Inst. of Mech. Eng., vol. 173, pp. 655-660, 1959.
- Nurick W. H., “Orifice Cavitation and Its Effects on Spray Mixing,” J. of Fluids Engineering, vol. 98, 1976.
- Hiroyasu H., Arai M., and Shimizu M., “Break-Up Length of a Liquid Jet and Internal Flow in a Nozzle,” ICLASS-91 Gaithersburg, MD, pp. 275-282, July 1991.
- Chaves H., et al., “Experimental Study of Cavitation in the Nozzle Hole of Diesel Injectors Using Transparent Nozzles,” SAE Paper No. 950290, pp. 199-211, 1995.
- Soteriou Celia, Andrews Richard, and Smith Mark, “Direct Injection Diesel Sprays and the Effect of Cavitation and Hydraulic Flip on Atomization,” SAE Paper No. 950080, p. 27-51, 1995.
- Delannoy Y. and Kueny J. L., “Two Phase Flow Approach in Unsteady Cavitation Modeling,” Cavitation and Multiphase Flow Forum, ASME FED, vol. 98, pp. 153-158 1990.
- Chen Yongliang and Heister Stephen D., “A Numerical Treatment for Attached Cavitation,” J. of Fluids Engineering, vol. 116, n. 3, pp. 613-618, 1994.
- Chen Yongliang and Heister Stephen D., “Two-Phase Modeling of Cavitated Flows,” Computers and Fluids v. 24, n. 7, pp. 799-809, 1995
- Avva Ram K., Singhal Ashok, and Gibson Dennis H.. “An Enthalpy Based Model of Cavitation.” ASME FED v. 226, pp. 63-70, 1995.
- Schmidt David P., Rutland Christopher J., and Corradini M. L., “A Fully Compressible Two-Dimensional Model of High Speed Cavitating Nozzles”, currently under review.
- Kubota A., Kato H., and Yamaguchi H., “Finite Difference Analysis of Unsteady Cavitation on a Two-Dimensional Hydrofoil,” Proc. of the 5th Int. Conf. on Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics, Hiroshima, pp. 667-683, Sept. 1989.
- Wallis Graham B., One-dimensional Two-phase Flow. McGraw-Hill. p. 143, 1969.
- Zijlema M., “On the Construction of a Third-Order Accurate Monotone Convection Scheme with Application to Turbulent Flows in General Domains,” Int. J. for Numerical Methods in Fluids, v. 22, pp. 619-641, 1996.
- ThompsonKevin W., “Time Dependent Boundary Conditions for Hyperbolic Systems,” J. of Comp. Physics, v. 68, p. 1-24, 1987.
- Knox-Kelecy Andrea L. and Farrell Patrick V., “Internal Flow in a Scale Model of a Diesel Fuel Injector Nozzle,” SAE Paper No. 922308, pp. 1-7, 1992.
- Reitz Rolf Deneys, Atomization and Other Breakup Regimes of a Liquid Jet, Ph.D. thesis, Princeton Univ., p. 163, 1978.
- Ohm T. R., Senser D. W., and Lefebvre A. H., “Geometric Effects on Spray Cone Angle for Plain-Orifice Atomizers,” Atomization and Sprays, vol. 1, pp. 137-153, 1991.
- Gelalles A. G., “Coefficients of Discharge of Fuel Injection Nozzles for Compression-Ignition Engines,” NACA Technical Memo. 373, pp. 193-209, 1931.
- Lamb, Sir Horace, Hydrodynamics 6th ed., Dover Publications, New York, 1932.
- Koo J. Y., Characteristics of a Transient Diesel Fuel Spray, Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Mech. Eng., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1991.