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On the Role of Cervical Facet Joints in Rear End Impact Neck Injury Mechanisms
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published February 24, 1997 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
After a rear end impact, various clinical symptoms are often seen in car occupants (e.g. neck stiffness, strain, headache). Although many different injury mechanisms of the cervical spine have been identified thus far, the extent to which a single mechanism of injury is responsible remains uncertain. Apart from hyperextension or excessive shearing, a compression of the cervical spine can also be seen in the first phase of the impact due to ramping or other mechanical interactions between the seat back and the spine.
It is hypothesized that this axial compression, together with the shear force, are responsible for the higher observed frequency of neck injuries in rear end impacts versus frontal impacts of comparable severity. The axial compression first causes loosening of cervical ligaments making it easier for shear type soft tissue injuries to occur.
To test this hypothesis, an in vitro experiment was designed to investigate the theory that axial compression reduces the shear stiffness when the cervical spine is moved due to a rear-end impact. Specimens from C1-T1 were tested. Results showed that shear stiffness values were reduced significantly with increased axial compressions. More dynamic tests are needed to further test this hypothesis for the rear-end impact neck injury mechanism. Also, investigations of soft tissue injuries in rear-end crash victims are necessary to guarantee the merit of this hypothesis.
|Technical Paper||Biomechanical Aspects of Cervical Spine Injuries|
|Technical Paper||Response of the Facial Structure to Impact
|Technical Paper||Lumbar Spine Injuries in Rear Impacts of Different Severities|
- King H. Yang - Wayne State Univ.
- Paul C. Begeman - Wayne State Univ.
- Marcus Muser - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and University of Zürich
- Peter Niederer - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and University of Zürich
- Felix Walz - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and University of Zürich
CitationYang, K., Begeman, P., Muser, M., Niederer, P. et al., "On the Role of Cervical Facet Joints in Rear End Impact Neck Injury Mechanisms," SAE Technical Paper 970497, 1997, https://doi.org/10.4271/970497.
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