This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Biomechanics of Lower Limb Injuries of Belted Car Drivers and the Influence of Intrusion and Accident Severity
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published November 01, 1996 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Due to protection applicances in the car, fewer persons sustain injuries in the course of traffic accidents. It can be pointed out that the injury pattern of car occupants was visibly changed by the seat belt, in earlier years the windscreen and steering wheel could hardly still be regarded as injury sources, but in the current situation with belt using of over 90% the injuries of all injured car drivers occur under other circumstances:
19% of all injured car drivers suffered injuries by the steering wheel, 20% by the dashboard, 29% by belt load and 14% caused by parts of the footroom region.
It can be summarized that the present car safety measures did not avoid all major injuries and lower limb injuries occur relatively often.
This study will explain the injury mechanisms of lower limb injuries and show demands for car developments and dummy test work. The data has been derived from traffic accidents documented by scientific team at the Accident Research Unit of the Medical University Hannover / Germany, by order of the Federal Highway Research Institute BAST.
Out of a sample of 6985 belted drivers in car crashes 2,605 belted car drivers with lower limb injuries could be analysed. Persons with pelvic fractures as well as isolated hip joint fractures were included. The accidents are documented during the years 1985 to 94 within a statistical random sample and weighting procedure.
In the study it was established that the injury risk for the legs is different in various collision types as frontal and lateral impact. Impacts of the vehicle side against a tree cause the most frequent and the most severe consequences. The different kinds and localisations of injuries are shown related to accident severity parameter like Delta-v and the influence of intrusion will be analysed. The pelvis has to be included in the explanation of mechanisms. Important for the resulting injury are impulse direction and position of lateral force transmission.
Isolated femural fractures are incured when a direct impact to the thigh region occurs distinctly in front of the pelvis laterally or transversally. A combination of femural and pelvic fractures can be found when the impact occurs transversally from the front. Isolated pelvic fractures are found when the lateral impact involves the pelvic region. Pelvic girdle fractures do also often determine a transverse longitudinal axis component. Pelvic fractures were exposed to high collision severity. They occur mainly in lateral impacts, especially with poles.
The kind of interior deformation is responsible for the kind of injury pattern and the intrusion can be seen as an important influence factor.
|Technical Paper||Factors Associated With Abdominal Injury in Frontal, Farside, and Nearside Crashes|
|Technical Paper||Side Impact Injury Risk for Belted Far Side Passenger Vehicle Occupants|
|Technical Paper||Adult Occupant Injuries of the Lower Limb|
CitationOtte, D., "Biomechanics of Lower Limb Injuries of Belted Car Drivers and the Influence of Intrusion and Accident Severity," SAE Technical Paper 962425, 1996, https://doi.org/10.4271/962425.
- Otte, D. Assessment of Measures Reducing Residual Severe and Fatal Injuries MAIS 3+ of Car Occupants Proc. ESV-Conf., Paper no. 96-S4-W-18 Melbourne/Australia 1996
- Otte, D. Review of the Air Bag Effectiveness in Real Life Accidents - Demands for Positioning and Optimal Deployment of Air Bag Systems Proc. 39th Stapp Car Crash Conf., Paper SAE 952701 1-10 299 San Diego/USA 1995
- Thomas, P. Lower Limb Injuries - The Effect of Intrusion, Crash Severity and the Pedals on Injury Risk and Injury Type in Frontal Collisions Proc. 39th Stapp Conf., Paper 952728 265-280 299 San Diego/USA 1995
- Siegburg 1990
- Otte, D. The Accident Research Unit Hannover as Example for Importance and Benefit of Existing In Depth Investigations SAE Paper 940712 , SAE International Congress and Exposition Detroit/USA 1994
- American Association for Automotive Medicine The Abbreviated Injury Scale AIS Morton Grove, Illinois/USA 1990
- Otte, D. Deformation Characteristics and Occupant Load Capacity in Lateral Impacts for Nearside Belted Front Car Passengers SAE Paper 933126 , 37th Stapp Car Crash Conf. 269 185 197 San Antonio/USA 1993
- Otte, D. Importance of Existing Car Safety Concepts for the Accident Behaviour and Demands to Future Developments Lecture 26th ISATA-Conf. Aachen/Germany Proc. Road and Vehicle Safety, Paper no. 93FO26 49 62 1993
- Otte, D. Pohlemann, T. Injury Mechanisms for Pelvis Fractures of Nearside Occupants in Lateral Car Impacts and Influences of Deformation Characteristics