This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Hover/Ground-Effect Testing and Characteristics for a Joint Strike Fighter Configuration
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published November 18, 1996 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Hover and ground-effect tests were conducted with the Lockheed-Martin Large Scale Powered Model (LSPM) during June-November 1995 at the Outdoor Aerodynamics Research Facility (OARF) located at NASA Ames Research Center. This was done in support of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program being lead by the Department of Defense. The program was previously referred to as the Joint Advanced Strike Technology (JAST) Program. The tests at the OARF included: engine thrust calibrations out of ground effect, measurements of individual nozzle jet pressure decay characteristics, and jet-induced hover force and moment measurements in and out of ground effect.
The engine calibrations provide data correlating propulsion system throttle and nozzle settings with thrust forces and moments for the bare fuselage with the wings, canards, and tails removed. This permits measurement of propulsive forces and moments while minimizing any of the effects due to the presence of the large horizontal surfaces. The engine calibrations were used later to determine thrust for hover testing at the OARF and for transition testing which took place in the NASA Ames 80- by - 120-foot Wind Tunnel (Reference 1).
The jet decay characteristics reflect the jet entrainment properties and are related to the aircraft suckdown characteristics. The JSF program provided the opportunity to obtain model scale effects using two models; one at small-scale and one at large-scale. Examples of data from these tests will be presented out of ground effect which will demonstrate the effect of scale. For one JSF configuration, two small-scale models and one large-scale model were tested. Different values for the lift loss out of ground effect were obtained for each configuration. These differences were examined and are found to be largely dependent on the jet efflux characteristics.
The jet-induced hover forces and moments are presented in and out of ground effect. For the hover testing the model is methodically built up from the bare fuselage, to include the wings, canards, and vertical tails, to determine the effects of each on measured lift loss. Other components such as weapons bay doors, landing gear doors, and other lift improvement devices and their effect on the jet-induced forces and moments are also examined.
CitationHange, C., Naumowicz, T., Wardwell, D., Margason, R. et al., "Hover/Ground-Effect Testing and Characteristics for a Joint Strike Fighter Configuration," SAE Technical Paper 962253, 1996, https://doi.org/10.4271/962253.
- Naumowicz, T. Wardwell, D. A. Hange, C. E. Margason, R. Arledge, T. K. “Transition Performance of a Joint Strike Fighter Configuration.” SAE 96-2252, International Powered Lift Conference November 1996
- Hange, C. E. Wardwell, D. A. “Small Scale Jet Effects and Hot Gas Ingestion Testing at NASA Ames.” August 1992
- Wardwell, D. A. Naumowicz, T. Hange, C. E. Margason, R. Arledge, T. K. “Test Techniques for STOVL Large-Scale Powered Models.” SAE 96-2251, International Powered Lift Conference November 1996
- Margason, R. Arledge, T. K. “Jet Decay Characteristics of a Joint Strike Fighter Configuration.” SAE 96-2250, International Powered Lift Conference November 1996
- Gentry, Garl L. Margason, Richard J. “Jet-Induced Lift Losses on VTOL Configurations Hovering In and Out of Ground Effect,” NASA TN D-3166 Feb. 1966
- McLemore, H. C. “Jet-Induced Lift Loss of Jet VTOL Configurations Hovering Condition,” NASA TN D-3435 June 1966
- Shumpert, P. K. Tibbetts, J. G. “Model Tests of Jet-Induced Lift Effects on a VTOL Aircraft in Hover,” NASA CR-1297 March 1969
- Kuhlman, J. M. Warcup, R. W. “Experimental Investigation of Jet-Induced Loads on a Flat Plate in Hover Out-of-Ground Effect,” NASA CR-159004 Feb. 1979
- Kotansky, D. R. “Jet Flowfields,” 1984 2 1 2 23
- Livingston, J. K. “An ExperimentalInvestigation of a Cold Jet with Solid Center Body Emitting from a Flat Plate into a Subsonic Free Stream,” Old Dominion University May 1975
- Kuhlman, J. M. Ousterhout, D. S. Warcup, R. W. “Experimental Investigation of Effects of Jet Decay Rate on Jet-Induced Pressures on a Flat Plate,” NASA CR-158990 Nov. 1978
- Bevilaqua, Paul Quayle, Brian Post, Mark Eshleman, Jim Tait, Patrick Falabella, David “ASTOVL Aircraft Technology Demonstration Program Phase II: Critical Technology Validation,” LMSW TR 96-1 May 1996