This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Development and Application of an Improved Ring Pack Model for Hydrocarbon Emissions Studies
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 01, 1996 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Because only the unburned gases in the crevices can contribute to hydrocarbon emissions, a model was developed that can be used to determine the temporal and spatial histories of both burned gas and unburned gas flow into and out of the piston-liner crevices. The burned fraction in the top-land is primarily a function of engine design. Burned gases continue to get packed into the inter-ring volume until well after the end of combustion and the unburned fuel returned to the chamber from this source depends upon both the position of the top ring end gap relative to the spark plug and of the relative positions of the end gaps of the compression rings with respect to each other. Because the rings rotate, and because the fuel that returns to the chamber from the inter-ring crevice dominates the sources between BDC and IVO when conditions are unfavorable to in-cylinder oxidation, these represent two sources of variability in the HC emissions. A model for unburned fuel emissions due to exhaust valve leakage is included as is a model for the contributions by the head crevices (head gasket, spark plug, and valve seat crevices). At EVO, the fuel remaining in the exhaust valve seat crevice gets swept into the exhaust producing a spike of unburned fuel emissions of several thousand ppm for a few crank angles. At IVO, the fuel remaining in the intake valve seat gets swept into the backflow and, for the present conditions, does not return to the cylinder until after EVC. Predictions are made for a variety of operating conditions for the 2-valve engine that was the subject of extensive hydrocarbon emissions measurements by Kaiser and coworkers at Ford. Comparisons between the model predictions and the experimental measurements spatially-resolved at the cylinder exit - of unburned fuel and non-fuel HCs are used to draw conclusions regarding the effects of operating conditions and fuel structure on the two sources of unburned fuel, the contributions by the other sources, the fraction retained, the fraction totally oxidized, and the fraction partially oxidized.
CitationRoberts, C. and Matthews, R., "Development and Application of an Improved Ring Pack Model for Hydrocarbon Emissions Studies," SAE Technical Paper 961966, 1996, https://doi.org/10.4271/961966.
SAE 1996 Transactions - Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
Number: V105-4 ; Published: 1997-09-15
Number: V105-4 ; Published: 1997-09-15
- Cheng, W.K., Hamrin D., Heywood J.B., Hochgreb S., Min K., and Norris M. (1993), “An overview of hydrocarbon emissions mechanisms in spark-ignition engines”, -SAE Paper 932708.
- Furhama, S., and Tada T. (1961), “On the flow of gas through the piston rings; First Report - the discharge coefficient and temperature of gas leakage”, Bulletin of the JSME 4(16):684-690.
- Furhama, S., and Tada T. (1961), “On the flow of gas through the piston rings; Second Report - the character of gas leakage”, Bulletin of the JSME 4(16):691-698.
- Ting, L.L., and Mayer J.E. (1974), “Piston ring lubrication and cylinder bore wear analysis; Part 1 - theory”, Journal of Lubrication Technology, ASME Paper No. 73-Lub-25.
- Ting, L.L., and Mayer J.E. (1974), “Piston ring lubrication and cylinder bore wear analysis; Part 2 - theory verification”, Journal of Lubrication Technology, ASME Paper No. 73-Lub-27.
- Namazian, M., and Heywood J.B. (1982), “Flow in the piston-cylinder-ring crevices of a spark ignition engine: effect on hydrocarbon emissions, efficiency and-power”, SAE Paper 820088.
- Brombolich, L.J. (1988), “Effect of cylinder distortions and piston ring design on oil consumption and friction losses in automobile engines”, report by Compu-Tec to the US DOE, Report No. DE-AC02-86CE-90236.
- Kuo, T.-W., Sellnau M.C., Theobald M.A., and Jones J.D. (1989), “Calculation of flow in the piston-cylinder-ring crevices of a homogeneous-charge engine and comparison with experiment”, SAE Paper 890838.
- Reitz, R.D., and Kuo T.-W. (1989), “Modeling of HC emissions due to crevice flows in premixed charge engines”, SAE Paper 892085.
- Lee, G.R., and Morley C. (1994), “Chemical modeling of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions”, SAE Paper 941958.
- Kaiser, E.W., Siegl W.O., Henig Y.I., and Anderson R.W. (1991), “Effect of fuel structure on emissions from a spark-ignited engine”, Environmental Science and Technology 25::2005'-2012; correction in Environmental Science and Technology 26(8):1672 (1992).
- Cheng, W.K., Hochgreb S., Norris M.G., and Wu K-C. (1994), “Auto-Oil Program Phase II heavy hydrocarbon study: fuel species oxidation chemistry and its relationship to the Auto-Oil data”, SAE Paper 941970.
- Trinker, F.H., Cheng J., and Davis G.C. (1993), “A feedgas HC emission model for SI engines including partial burn effects”, SAE Paper 932705.
- Hamrin, D.A., and Heywood J.B. (1995), Modeling of engine-out hydrocarbon emissions for prototype production engines”, SAE Paper 950984.
- Min, K., and Cheng W.K. (1994), “In-cylinder oxidation of piston-crevice hydrocarbon in SI engines”, Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines (COMODIA '94), JSME, Tokyo, pp. 125-130.
- Kaiser, E.W., Siegl W.O., Cotton D.F., and Anderson R.W. (1992), “Effect of fuel structure on emissions from a spark-ignited engine. 2. naphthene and aromatic fuels”, Environmental Science and Technology 26(8)1581-1586.
- Kaiser, E.W., Siegl W.O., Cotton D.F., and Anderson R.W. (1993), “Effect of fuel structure on emissions from a spark-ignited engine. 3. olefinic fuels”, Environmental Science and Technology 27(7):1440-1447.
- Kaiser, E.W., Siegl W.O., and Anderson R.W. (1994), “Fuel structure and the nature of engine-out emissions”, SAE Paper 941960.
- Kaiser, E.W., Siegl W.O., Trinker F.H., Cotton D.F., Cheng W.K., and Drobot K. (1995), “Effect of engine operating parameters on hydrocarbon oxidation in the exhaust port and runner of a spark-ignited engine”, SAE Paper 950159.
- Drobot, K., Cheng W.K., Trinker F.H., Cotton D.F., Kaiser E.W., Siegl W.O., and Underwood J. (1994), “Hydrocarbon oxidation in the exhaust port and runner of a spark ignition engine”, Combust. and Flame. 99.:422.
- Kaiser, E.W. (1994), private correspondence, Chemistry Department, Scientific Research Laboratories, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Michigan.
- Kaiser, E.W., Siegl W.O., Lawson G.P., Connolly F.T., Cramer C.F., Dobbins K.L., Roth P.W., and Smokovitz M. (1996), “Effect of fuel preparation on cold-start hydrocarbon emissions from a spark-ignited engine”, SAE Paper 961957.
- Eng, J.A., Leppard W.R., and Dryer F.L. (1995), “Interaction between nitric oxide and oxidation chemistry in an IC engine - status”, presented at the DOE Working Group Meeting, Princeton University, March.
- Chin, Y-W., Matthews R.D., Nichols S.P., and Kiehne T.M. (1992), “Use of fractal geometry to model turbulent combustion in SI engines,” Combustion Science and Technology 8 (1-6):1-30 (1992).
- Chin, Y.W. (1991), Fractals and Combustion in Spark Ignition Engines, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas, Austin, TX.
- Chin, Y-W., Matthews R.D., Nichols S.P., and Kiehne T.M. (1990), “Continued development of an SI engine model using fractal geometry,” Proceedings of the Diagnostics and Modeling of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines Conference, JSME/JSAE, Tokyo, pp. 81-86.
- Matthews, R.D., and Chin Y.-W. (1991) “A fractal-based SI engine model: comparisons of predictions with experimental data,” SAE Paper 910079, also in Journal of Engines 100:99-117, 1992.
- Matthews, R.D., Sarwar M.G., Hall M.J., Filipe D.J., Miller D.L., and Cernansky N.P. (1991), “Predictions of cyclic variability in an SI engine and comparisons with experimental data,” SAE Paper 912345, Journal of Engines 100:1747-1760, 1992.
- Wu, C.M., Roberts C.E., Matthews R.D., and Hall M.J. (1993), “Effects of engine speed on combustion in SI engines: comparisons of predictions of a fractal burning model with experimental data,” SAE Paper 932714, also in Journal of Engines 102 (3)2277-2291, 1994.
- Poulos, S.G. (1982), The Effect of Combustion Chamber Geometry on SI Engine Combustion Rates - A Modeling Study, M.S. Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, MIT.
- Poulos, S.G., and Heywood J.B. (1983), “The effect of chamber shape on spark ignition engine combustion”, SAE Paper 830334.
- Kee, R.J., Rupley F.M., and Miller J.A. (1989), “CHEMKIN: A Fortran Chemical Kinetics Package for the Analysis of Gas-Phase Chemical Kinetics”, Sandia National Labs Report SAND89-8009, Livermore, CA.
- Kee, R.J., Dixon-Lewis G., Warnatz J., Coltrin M.E., and Miller J.A. (1986), “TRANFIT: A Fortran Computer Code Package for the Evaluation of Gas-Phase Multicomponent Transport Properties”, Sandia National Labs Report SAND86-8246, Livermore, CA.
- Russ, S.G., Kaiser E.W., Siegl W.O., Podsiadlik D.H., and Barrett K.M. (1995), “Compression ratio and coolant temperature effects on HC emissions from a spark-ignition engine”, SAE Paper 950163.
- Russ, S.G., Kaiser E.W., and Siegl W.O. (1995), “Effect of cylinder head and engine block temperature on HC emissions from a single cylinder spark ignition engine”, SAE Paper 952536.
- LoRusso, J.A., Kaiser E.W., and Lavoie G.A. (1993), “In-cylinder measurements of wall layer hydrocarbons-in a spark ignited engine”, Combustion Science and Technology 33:75-112.
- Kiehne, T.M., Matthews R.D., and Wilson D.E. (1988), “Significance of intermediate hydrocarbons during wall quench of propane flames”, Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion, the Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, pp. 481-489.
- Hadjiconstantinou, N., Min K., and Heywood J.B. (1996), “Relation between flame propagation characteristics and hydrocarbon emissions under lean operating conditions in spark-ignition engines”, presented at the Twenty-First Symposium (international) on Combustion, to be published by the Combustion Institute.
- Meernik P.R., and Alkidas A.C. (1993), “Impact of exhaust valve leakage on engine-out hydrocarbons”, SAE Paper 932752.
- Herwig, R. and Maly R.R. (1992), “A fundamental model for flame kernel formation in SI engines”, SAE Paper 922243.
- Dai, W.G. (1995), Development of a Fractal Burning Model for Ford's Proprietary Engine Simulation Code, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas, Austin, TX.
- Hall, M.J., and Bracco F.V. (1987), “A study of velocities and turbulence intensities measured in fired and motored engines”, SAE Paper 870453.
- Foster, D.E., and Witze P.O. (1988), “Two-component laser velocimeter measurements in a spark ignition engine”, Combust. Science and Tech. 59:85.
- Witze, P.O., and Foster D.E. (1988), “Two-component velocity probability density measurements during combustion in a spark ignition engine”, IMechE Paper C51/88.
- Ricardo Software (1994), “Marketing Code Release and Documentation for WAVE & RING”, Burr Ridge IL 60521-5852.
- Wentworth, J.T. (1968), “Piston and ring variables affect exhaust hydrocarbon emissions”, SAE Paper 680109.
- Eng, J.A. (1996), Princeton University, private communication regarding his research conducted at General Motors R&D Center.
- Wentworth, J.T. (1982), “Effect of top compression ring profile on oil consumption and blowby with the seated ring orifice design”, SAE Paper 820089.
- Guillemot, P., Gatellier B., and Rouveirolles P. (1994), “The influence of coolant temperature on unburned hydrocarbon emissions from spark ignition engines”, SAE Paper 941962.
- Min, K., Cheng W.K., and Heywood J.B. (1994), “The effects of crevices on engine-out hydrocarbon emissions in SI engines”, SAE Paper 940306.
- Kaiser, E.W., Siegl W.O., Baidas L.M., Lawson G.P., Cramer C.F., Dobbins K.L., Roth P.W., and Smokovitz M. (1994b), “Time-resolved measurement of speciated hydrocarbon emissions during cold start of a spark-ignited engine”, SAE Paper 940963.