This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Lower Limb Injuries - The Effect of Intrusion, Crash Severity and the Pedals on Injury Risk and Injury Type in Frontal Collisions
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published November 01, 1995 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Injuries to the lower extremities of belted car occupants in frontal collisions are frequent and can be impairing. Crash parameters and vehicle attributes increase or decrease the risk of injury. Real-world accident data collected within the UK under the Co-operative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) has been used to examine these effects. AIS 2+ injuries are most common below the knees of both drivers and passengers. Intrusion of the footwell increases the risk of leg injury to a greater extent than crash severity under the conditions experienced in the accident data. Intrusion is shown not to be a proxy variable for delta-V. The pedals increase the risk of leg injury by 54% when there is 20 cm of footwell intrusion.
The study indicates the need for an improved understanding of the injury mechanisms involved and the mechanism through which intrusion increases leg injury. There is also the need to examine the effect of the brake pedal on leg injury as pedal intrusion may be greater than the surrounding footwell.
CitationThomas, P., Charles, J., and Fay, P., "Lower Limb Injuries - The Effect of Intrusion, Crash Severity and the Pedals on Injury Risk and Injury Type in Frontal Collisions," SAE Technical Paper 952728, 1995, https://doi.org/10.4271/952728.
- Morgan, R. M.; Eppinger, R.H.; Hennessey, B. Ankle joint injury mechanism for adults in frontal automotive impacts. Proc. 35th Stapp Car Crash Proceedings, San Diego 1991. pp 189 - 198
- Ward, E, Pattimore, D, Thomas, P, Bradford, M.; Leg injuries in car accidents - are we doing enough? Proc of 1991 International IRCOBI conference on the biomechanics of impacts. Berlin 1991. pp 321 - 335.
- Thomas P. Priorities in frontal crash protection. Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Automotive Technology and Automation - Dedicated conference on road and vehicle safety. Aachen 1993
- Gloyns, P, F, Hayes, H, R, M, Rattenbury, S, J, Thomas, P, Mills, H, C, Griffiths, D, R,. Lower limb injuries to car occupants in frontal impacts. Proc of 4th International IRCOBI conference on the biomechanics of trauma. September 1979.
- Otte, D, von Rheinbaben, H, Zwipp, H, Biomechanics of injuries to the foot and ankle joint of car drivers and improvements for an optimal car floor development. Proc. 36th Stapp Car Crash Proceedings, San Antonio 1992. pp 43 - 58
- Pattimore, D, Ward, E, Thomas, P, Bradford, M, The nature and cause of lower limb injuries in car crashes. Proc. 35th Stapp Car Crash Proceedings, San Diego 1991. pp 177 - 188
- Frampton, R, J, Hill, J, R, Mackay, G, M, Leg injury risk in frontal collisions. Issues on Automotive Safety Technology, Society for Automotive Engineers, 1995. SP - 1072
- Portier, L, Trosseille, X, Le Coz, J-Y, Lavaste, F, Coltat, J-C. Lower leg injuries in real-world frontal impacts. Proc of 1993 International IRCOBI conference on the biomechanics of impacts. Eindhoven 1993. pp 57 - 78.
- Thomas P, Real World Collisions And Appropriate Barrier Tests. 14 th Enhanced Safety Vehicle Conference. May 23 - 26 1994 Munich.
- Thomas P, The Definition Of Crash Parameters For An Advanced Frontal Crash Test Based On Real-World Crashes International Journal of Vehicle Design Vol. 16 no 2/3 1995.
- Lestina, D.C.; Kuhlman, T.P.; Keats, T.E. Alley, R.M. Mechanisms of fracture in ankle and foot injuries to drivers in motor vehicle crashes. Stapp Car Crash Conference 1992
- Begeman, P.; Balakrishnan, P.; Levine, R.; King, A. Dynamic Human Ankle Response to Inversion and Eversion. Stapp Car Crash Conference, 1993.
- Begeman, P.; Prasad, P. Human Ankle Impact Response in Dorsiflection. Stapp Car Crash Conference 1990.
- Galer M, Mackay GM, Clarke S, Ashton SJ. The Causes of Injury in Car Accidents - an Overview of a Major Study Currently Underway in Britain. 10th International Technical Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles July 1985.
- Otubushin Y, Galer M. Crashed Vehicle Examination Techniques. International Congress and Exposition SAE, Detroit, Michigan, USA February 1986.
- Smith, R.A., Noga, J.T. Accuracy and Sensitivity of CRASH. 26th Stapp Car Crash Conference 1982.
- Thomas, P., Bradford, MB A Logistic Regression Analysis of Lower Limb Injury Risk in Frontal Collisions Proc. 39th Conference of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. 15 - 18 October 1995