This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Human Head and Neck Kinematics After Low Velocity Rear-End Impacts - Understanding “Whiplash”
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published November 01, 1995 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
A second series of low speed rear end crash tests with seven volunteer test subjects have delineated human head/neck dynamics for velocity changes up to 10.9 kph (6.8 mph). Angular and linear sensor data from biteblock arrays were used to compute acceleration resultants for multiple points on the head's sagittal plane. By combining these acceleration fields with film based instantaneous rotation centers, translational and rotational accelerations were defined to form a sequential acceleration history for points on the head. Our findings suggest a mechanism to explain why cervical motion beyond the test subjects' measured voluntary range of motion was never observed in any of a total of 28 human test exposures. Probable “whiplash” injury mechanisms are discussed.
- Whitman E. McConnell - Biodynamic Research Corp.
- Richard P. Howard - Biodynamic Research Corp.
- Jon Van Poppel - Biodynamic Research Corp.
- Robin Krause - Biodynamic Research Corp.
- Herbert M. Guzman - Biodynamic Research Corp.
- John B. Bomar - Biodynamic Research Corp.
- James H. Raddin - Biodynamic Research Corp.
- James V. Benedict - Biodynamic Research Corp.
- Charles P. Hatsell - Biodynamic Research Corp.
CitationMcConnell, W., Howard, R., Poppel, J., Krause, R. et al., "Human Head and Neck Kinematics After Low Velocity Rear-End Impacts - Understanding “Whiplash”," SAE Technical Paper 952724, 1995, https://doi.org/10.4271/952724.
- Algers, G. Petersson, K. Hildingsson, C. Toolanen, G. Surgery for chronic symptoms after whiplash injury Acta Orthop Scand 1993 Dec 654 656
- Allen, M.E. Weir-Jones, I. Motiuk, D.R. Flewin, K.R. Goring, R.D. Kobetitch, R. Broadhurst, A. Acceleration Perturbations of daily living “whiplash” Spine 1994 19 11 1285 1290
- The anatomy of the cervical region “whiplash” lesion. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1956 Jan 38 1 438
- Awerbuch, M.S. Whiplash in Australia: illness or injury? Med J Aust 1992 Aug 3 156 3 193 196
- Bailey, M. N. Wong, B. C. Lawrence, J. M. Data and methods for estimating the severity of minor impacts Accident Reconstruction: Technology and Animation V (SP-1083) Warrendale, PA Society of Automotive Engineers 1995 139 175 SAE Paper # 950352
- Bring, G. Wetman, G. Chronic posttraumatic syndrome after whiplash injury Scand J Prim Health Care 1991 9 135 141
- Broman, H. Pope, M.H. Benda, M. Svensson, M. Ottosson, C. Hansson, T. The impact response of the seated subject J Orthop Res 1991 Jan 9 1 150 154
- Burgess, J. Symptom characteristics in TMD patients reporting blunt trauma and/or whiplash injury J Craniomandib Disord 1991 Fall 5 4 251 257
- Burgess, J.A. Dworkin, S.F. Litigation and post-traumatic TMD: how patients report treatment outcome J Am Dent Assoc 1993 Jun 124 6 105 110
- Carlsson, G. Nilsson, S. Nilsson-Ehle, A. Norin, H. Ysander, L. Ortengren, R. Neck injuries in rear end collisions: biomechanical considerations to improve head restraints Proceedings of the 1985 International IRCOBI/AAAM Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts Gothenborg, Sweden June 24-26 1988 Stockholm, Sweden FOLKSAM Group 1985 277 289
- Cesari, D. Neilson, I.D. Further consideration of the European side impact test procedure Proceedings of the 11th International Technical Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles Washington, D.C. May 12-15 1987 Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 1987 133 136
- Clemens, H.J. Burow, K. Experimental investigation on injury mechanisms of cervical spine at frontal and rear-front vehicle impacts Proceedings of the 16th Stapp Car Crash Conference Detroit, MI November 8-10 1972 Society of Automotive Engineers Proceedings No. P-45 New York, NY Society of Automotive Engineers 1972 76 104 SAE Paper # 720960
- de Jager, M. Sauren, A. Thunnissen, J. Wismans, J. A three-dimensional head-neck model: validation for frontal and lateral impacts Proceedings of the 38th Stapp Car Crash Conference Fort Lauderdale, FL October 31 November 2 1994 279 Warrendale, PA Society of Automotive Engineers 1994 93 110 SAE Paper # 942211
- Evans, R.W. Some observations on whiplash injuries Neurol Clin 1992 Nov 10 4 975 997
- Friedman, R. Harris, J.P. Sitzer, M. Schaff, H.B. Marshall, L. Shackford, S. Injuries related to all-terrain vehicular accidents: a closer look at head and neck trauma Laryngoscope 1988 Nov 98 11 1251 1254
- Galasko, C.S.B. Murray, P.M. Pitcher, M. Chambers, H. Mansfield, S. Madden, M. Jordon, C. Kinsella, A. Hodson, M. Neck sprains after road traffic accidents: a modern epidemic Injury 1993 Mar 24 3 155 157
- Gay, J.R. Abbott, K.H. Common whiplash injuries of the neck JAMA 1953 Aug 29 152 18 1698 1704
- Geigl, B. C. Steffan, H. Leinzinger, P. Roll Muhlbauer, M. Bauer, G. The movement of head and cervical spine during rearend impact Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts Lyon, France September 21-23 1994 Bron, France IRCOBI Secretariat 1994 127 138
- Goldman, S. Ahlskog, J.E. Posttraumatic cervical dystonia Mayo CLin Proc 1993 May 68 5 443 448
- Hamer, A.J. Gargan, M.F. Bannister, G.C. Nelson, R.J. Whiplash injury and surgically treated cervical disc disease Injury 1993 Sep 24 8 549 550
- Hendler, E. O'Rourke, J. Schulman, M. Katzeff, M. Domzalski, L. Rodgers, S. Effect of head and body position and muscular tensing on response to impact Proceedings of the 18th Stapp Car Crash Conference Ann Arbor, MI December 4-5 1974 Society of Automotive Engineers Proceedings No. P-56 Warrendale, PA Society of Automotive Engineers 1974 303 337 SAE Paper # 741184
- Howard, R.P. Benedict, J.V. Raddin, J.H., Jr. Smith, H.L. Assessing neck extension-flexion as a basis for temporomandibular joint dysfunction J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1991 Nov 49 11 1210 1213
- Jakobsson, L. Norin, H. Jernstrom, C. Svensson, S. E. Johnsen, P. Isaksson-Hellman, I. Svensson, M. Y. Analysis of different head and neck responses in rear-end car collisions using a new humanlike mathematical model Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts Lyon, France September 21-23 1994 Bron, France IRCOBI Secretariat 1994 109 125
- Kallieris, D. Mattern, R. Miltner, E. Schmidt, G. Stein, K. Considerations for a neck injury criterion Proceedings of the 35th Stapp Car Crash Conference San Diego, CA November 18-20 1991 Society of Automotive Engineers Proceedings No. P-251 Warrendale, PA Society of Automotive Engineers 1991 401 417 SAE Paper # 912916
- King, D.J. Siegmund, G.P. Bailey, M.N. Automobile bumper behavior in low speed impacts International Congress and Exposition Detroit, MI March 1-5 1993 Warrendale, PA Society of Automotive Engineers 1993 1 18 SAE Paper # 930211
- Lee, J. Giles, K. Drummond, P.D. Psychological disturbances and an exaggerated response to pain in patients with whiplash injury J Psychosom Res 1993 37 2 105 110
- Livingston, M. Whiplash injury: misconceptions and remedies Aust Fam Physician 1992 Nov 21 11 1642 1643 1646 1647
- Luo, Z.P. Goldsmith, W. Reaction of a human head/neck/torso system to shock J Biomech 1991 24 7 499 510
- Marshall, S. Langley, J. Phillips, D. Severity and medical costs associated with the road casualty problem in New Zealand Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine Portland, OR October 5-7 1992 Torrance, CA Nissan North America 1992 397 412
- Matsushita, T. Sato, T. B. Hirabayashi, K. Fujimura, S. Asazuma, T. Takatori, T. X-ray study of the human neck motion due to head inertia loading Proceedings of the 38th Stapp Car Crash Conference Fort Lauderdale, FL October 31 November 2 1994 279 Warrendale, PA Society of Automotive Engineers 1994 55 64 SAE Paper # 942208
- McConnell, W.E. Howard, R.P. Guzman, H.M. Bomar, J.B. Raddin, J.H., Jr. Benedict, J.V. Smith, H.L. Hatsell, C.P. Analysis of human test subject kinematic responses to low velocity rear end impacts Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. 1993 SAE International Congress & Exposition Detroit, MI March 1993
- McKenzie, J.A. Williams, J.F. The dynamic behaviour of the head and cervical spine during “whiplash” J Biomech 1971 Dec 4 6 577 590
- Mertz, H.J. Neck injury “Biomechanics and Its Application to Automotive Design” Society of Automotive Engineering's Automotive Body Act Passenger Protection Committee New York, NY Society of Automotive Engineers 1973 1 29
- Nilson, G. Svensson, M. Y. Lovsund, P. Haland, Y. Wiklund, K. Rear-end collisions the effect of the seat-belt and the crash pulse on occupant motion Proceedings of the 14th International Technical Conference on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles Munich, Germany May 23-26 1994 Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 1994 1630 1638
- Ono, K. Kanno, M. Influences of the physical parameters on the risk to neck injuries in low impact speed rear end collisions Proceedings of the 1993 International Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts Eindhoven, Netherlands September 8-10 1993 Cedex, France International Research Council on Biokinetics of Impacts (IRCOBI) 1993 201 212
- Orner, P.A. A physician-engineer's view of low velocity rearend collisions Automobile Safety: Present and Future Technology (Society of Automotive Engineers SP-925) Warrendale, PA Society of Automotive Engineers 1992 11 18 SAE Paper # 921574
- Parmar, H.V. Raymakers, R. Neck injuries from rear impact road traffic accidents: prognosis in persons seeking compensation Injury 1993 Feb 24 2 75 78
- Pennie, B. Agambar, L. Patterns of injury and recovery in whiplash Injury 1991 22 1 57 59
- Robinson, D.D. Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. Acute neck sprain after road traffic accident: a long-term clinical and radiological review Injury 1993 Feb 24 2 79 82
- Ryan, G.A. Taylor, G.W. Moore, V.M. Dolinis, J. Neck strain in car occupants: the influence of crash-related factors on initial severity Med J Aust 1993 Nov 15 159 651 656
- Scott, M.W. McConnell, W.E. Guzman, H.M. Howard, R.P. Bomar, J.B. Smith, H.L. Benedict, J.V. Raddin, J.H., Jr. Hatsell, C.P. Comparison of human and ATD head kinematics during low-speed rearend impacts Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. 1993 SAE International Congress Exposition Detroit, MI March 1993
- Sehmer, J.M. Rear-end accident victims. Importance of understanding the accident Can Fam Physician 1993 Apr 39 828 831
- Severy, D.M. Mathewson, J.H. Bechtol, C.O. Controlled automobile rear-end collisions: an investigation of related engineering and medical phenomena Can Serv Med J 1955 11 757 759
- Shea, M. Wittenberg, R.H. Edwards, W.T. White AA 3d; Hayes, W.C In vitro hyperextension injuries in the human cadaveric cervical spine J Orthop Res 1992 Nov 10 6 911 916
- Siegmund, G. P. Bailey, M. N. King, D. J. Characteristics of specific automobile bumpers in low-velocity impacts Accident Reconstruction: Technology and Animation IV (SP-1030) Warrendale, PA Society of Automotive Engineers 1994 333 372 SAE Paper # 940916
- Spitzer, W. O. Skovron, M. L. Salmi, L. R. Cassidy, J. D. Duranceau, J. Suissa, S. Zeiss, E. Scientific Monograph of the Quebec Task Force on Whiplash-Associated Disorders: Redefining “Whiplash” and Its Management Spine 1995 Apr 15 20 8 1 73
- Svensson, M.Y. Lovsund, P. A dummy for rear end collisions Proceedings of the 1992 International Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts Verona, Italy September 9-11 1992 Cedex, France International Research Council on Biokinetics of Impacts (IRCOBI) 1992 299 310
- Svensson, M.Y. Lovsund, P. Haland, Y. Larsson, S. The influence of seatback and head restraint properties on the head-neck motion during rear impact Proceedings of the 1993 International Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts Eindhoven, Netherlands September 8-10 1993 Cedex, France International Research Council on Biokinetics of Impacts (IRCOBI) 1993 395 406
- Svensson, M.Y. Lovsund, P. Haland, Y. Larsson, S. Rear-end collisions: a study of the influence of backrest properties on head-neck motion using a new dummy neck Seat System Comfort and Safety (SP-963) Warrendale, PA Society of Automotive Engineers 1993 129 142 SAE Paper # 930343
- Svensson, M. Y. Aldman, B. Hansson, H. A. Lovsund, P. Seeman, T. Suneson, A. Ortengren, T. Pressure effects in the spinal canal during whiplash motion: a possible cause of injury to the cervical spine ganglia Proceedings of the 1993 International Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts Eindhoven, Netherlands September 8-10 1993 Cedex, France International Research Council on Biokinetics of Impacts (IRCOBI) 1993 189 200
- Szabo, T.J. Welcher, J. Dynamics of low speed crash tests with energy absorbing bumpers Automobile Safety: Present and Future Technology (Society of Automotive Engineers SP-925) Warrendale, PA Society of Automotive Engineers 1992 1 9 SAE Paper # 921573
- Szabo, T. J. Welcher, J. B. Anderson, R. D. Rice, M. M. Ward, J. A. Paulo, L. R. Carpenter, N. J. Human occupant kinematic response to low speed rear-end impacts Occupant Containment and Methods of Assessing Occupant Protection in the Crash Environment (SP-1045) Warrendale, PA Society of Automotive Engineers 1994 23 36 SAE Paper # 940532
- Taylor, J.R. Finch, P. Acute injury of the neck: anatomical and pathological basis of pain Ann Acad Med Singapore 1993 Mar 22 2 187 192
- Taylor, J.R. Twomey, L.T. Acute injuries to cervical joints: an autopsy study of neck sprain Spine 1993 18 9 1115 1122
- West, D.H. Gough, J.P. Harper, G.T.K. Low Speed Rear-End Collision Testing Using Human Subjects Accident Reconstruction Journal 1993 May June 22 26