This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Ford 4-Valve Light-Duty DI Diesel Developments
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 01, 1994 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
This paper recounts a brief history of Ford high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engines; from the original 2.5 litre naturally aspirated (NA) engine introduced 10 years ago as the world's first high volume HSDI diesel, followed by the introduction of the turbocharged version in 1992 with drive-by-wire electronic fuel injection pump, to the latest low emission version developed to meet recent European Commission (EC) “Stage 2” 94/12/EC standards. The performance development of a prototype 4-valve per cylinder version of the 2.5 litre engine is briefly described, covering the fuel injection equipment, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) tolerance, regulated emissions capability including the important oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulates trade-off, and the performance potential of this combustion system. It is concluded that the 4-valve per cylinder configuration provides significant benefits for emissions achieving a superior NOx/particulates trade-off compared to the 2-valve version of the same engine. The performance potential is demonstrated by the achievement of 16 bar BMEP peak torque. It is finally concluded that this technology will enable light-duty diesels to meet the forecast European emission standards due at the end of this decade and remain the most efficient prime mover for passenger cars and light trucks.
CitationMenne, R., Lawrence, P., Horrocks, R., and Robertson, P., "Ford 4-Valve Light-Duty DI Diesel Developments," SAE Technical Paper 941926, 1994, https://doi.org/10.4271/941926.
- Needham J R, Doyle D M and Faulkner S A, Developing the truck engine for ultra low emissions, I Mech E Seminar, “The Impact of Emissions Legislation on the Fleet Operator, February 1990.
- Needham J R, Doyle D M, Faulkner S A and Freeman H D, Technology for 1994, SAE paper 891949, September 1989.
- Burgler L, Herzog P L and Zelenka P, Strategies to meet US 1994/95 Diesel Engine Federal Emissions Legislation for HSDI - Diesel Engine Powered Vehicles, I Mech E Seminar, Worldwide Engine Emissions Standards and How to Meet Them, February 1991.
- Havenith C, Needham J R, Nicol A J and Such C H, Low Emission Heavy Duty Diesel Engine for Europe, SAE paper 932959, November 1993.
- Needham J R and Whelan S, Meeting the Challenge of Low Emissions and Fuel Economy with the Ricardo 4-Valve HSDI, Autotech 1993
- Bird G L, The Ford 2.5 litre High Speed Direct Injection Diesel Engine - Its Performance and Future Possibilities, SAE paper 850262, 1985.
- Brandstetter W and Howard J, Die zweite Generation des Ford 2.5 I Diesel Direkteinspritzmotors, ATZ Automobiltechnische Zeitschrift 91 (1989).
- Bird G L, Duffy K A and Tolan L E, Development and application of the Stanadyne new slim tip pencil injector. I Mech E Seminar on Diesel Fuel Systems, 10-11 Oct 1989, p 133.
- Bostock P G and Cooper L, Turbocharging the Ford 2.5 HSDI diesel engine, I. Mech. E. Seminar on Diesel Fuel Injection Systems, 14-15 April, 1992.
- Brandstetter W, Bostock P and Hansen J, Die neuen Dieselmotoren mit 2.51 Hubraum fur den Ford Transit, MTZ Motortechnische Zeitschrift (1992) 5.
- Council & European Parliament Directive 94/12/EC relating to measures to be taken against air pollution by emissions from motor vehicles and amending Directive 70/220/EEC, Official Journal of the European Communities 94/L 100/42-52.