This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Finite Element Modeling of Direct Head Impact
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published November 01, 1993 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Event: Stapp Car Crash Conference
A 3-D finite element human head model has been developed to study the dynamic response of the human head to direct impact by a rigid impactor. The model simulated closely the main anatomical features of an average adult head. It included the scalp, a three-layered skull, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), dura mater, falx cerebri, and brain. The layered skull, cerebral spinal fluid, and brain were modeled as brick elements with one-point integration. The scalp, dura mater, and falx cerebri were treated as membrane elements. To simulate the strain rate dependent characteristics of the soft tissues, the brain and the scalp were considered as viscoelastic materials. The other tissues of the head were assumed to be elastic. The model contains 6080 nodes, 5456 brick elements, and 1895 shell elements.
To validate the head model, it was impacted frontally by a cylinder to simulate the cadaveric tests performed by Nahum et. al. (8). Model responses were compared with the measured cadaveric test data in terms of impact force, head acceleration, and coup and contrecoup pressures. Head impact severity from different types of impacts (impact speed, impact mass, and impact location etc.) was evaluated by quantifying intracranial pressure, brain shear stress, and skull von Mises stress. Head Injury Criterion (HIC) was also calculated as an alternate means of impact severity assessment. It was shown that HIC was proportional to the intracranial pressure, shear stress, and skull von Mises stress. Hence, for a direct impact, HIC seems to reasonably reflect impact severity.
CitationRuan, J., Khalil, T., and King, A., "Finite Element Modeling of Direct Head Impact," SAE Technical Paper 933114, 1993, https://doi.org/10.4271/933114.
- King, A. I. Chou, C. C. 1976 “Mathematical Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Testing of Biomechanical System Crash Response,” J. Biomech. 9 301 317
- Liu, Y. K. 1979 “Biomechanics and Biophysics of CNS Trauma,” in Central Nervous System Trauma Research Status Report Odom, G. L. Duke, J. B. 36 52
- Cheng, L. Y. Rifai, S. Khatua, T. Piziali, R. L. 1990 “Finite Element Analysis of Diffuse Axonal Injury,” in Vehicle Crashworthiness and Occupant Protectionin Frontal Collisions 141 154 SAE paper No. 900547
- Chu, C. S. Lee, M. C. 1991 “Finite Element Analysis of Cerebral Contusion,” ASME 1991 Advances in Bioengineering 20 601 604
- Ruan, J. S. Khalil, T. B. King, A. I. 1991 “Human Head Dynamic Response to Side Impact by Finite Element Modeling,” ASME Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 113 276 283
- DiMasi, F. Marcus, J. Eppinger, R. 1991 “Three-Dimensional Anatomic Brain Model for Relating Cortical Strains to Automobile Crash Loading,” Proc. 12nd Intern. Tech. Conf. on Exp. Safety Vehicle Paris, France 617 627
- Ruan, J. S. Khalil, T. B. King, A. I. 1992 “Dynamic Response of the Human Head to Impact by Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis,” ASME Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
- Nahum, A. M. Smith, R. Ward, C. C. 1977 “Intracranial Pressure Dynamics During Head Impact,” Proc. 21st Stapp Car Crash Conf., SAE Paper No. 770922
- Galford, J. E. McElhaney, J. H. 1970 “A Viscoelastic Study of Scalp, Brain, and Dura,” J. Biomech. 3 211 221
- PAM-CRASH User's Manual Engineering System International 1992