This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Toxic Air Pollutant Vehicle Exhaust Emissions with Reformulated Gasolines
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 01, 1991 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
This paper presents results derived from Phase I of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program. The Clean Air Act-defined mobile source toxic air pollutants benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde have been measured in exhaust from twenty current model vehicles and fourteen older model vehicles during testing with 18 gasolines of varying composition.
The gasoline fuel compositional variables evaluated included aromatic content, methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) content, olefin content, and the 90% distillation temperature (T90). The four fuel parameters were varied at target values of 45 and 20 vol % total aromatics, 0 and 15 vol % MTBE, 20 and 5 vol % total olefins and 360 and 280 °F 90% distillation temperature. An industry average fuel and an emissions certification test fuel were tested as reference fuels.
In the current fleet, benzene levels were lowered when either fuel aromatics or T90 were reduced. Levels of 1,3-butadiene in the exhaust were lowered when MTBE was added and when olefins and T90 were reduced, but were raised by reducing fuel aromatics. Formaldehyde exhaust emissions were lowered when T90 was reduced but raised when aromatics were reduced or when MTBE was added. Acetaldehyde was lowered when T90 was reduced but was raised with a reduction in fuel aromatic content.
Older fleet benzene emissions were lowered when aromatics were reduced and when MTBE was added. The emissions level of 1,3-butadiene was lowered when olefins and T90 were reduced. Formaldehyde was raised when aromatics were reduced. Acetaldehyde emissions increased as aromatics were reduced.
The aggregate toxic emission levels for the 18 test fuels varied between 10 and 21 mg/mi for the current fleet and 27 and 40 mg/mi for the older fleet.
- Robert A. Gorse - Ford Motor Co.
- Jack D. Benson - General Motors Research Laboratories
- Vaughn R. Burns - Chrysler Motors Corp.
- Albert M. Hochhauser - Exxon Research and Engineering Co.
- William J. Koehl - Mobil Research and Development Corp.
- Louis J. Painter - Statistics PLUS
- Robert M. Reuter - Texaco, Inc.
- Brian H. Rippon - Ford Motor Co.
CitationGorse, R., Benson, J., Burns, V., Hochhauser, A. et al., "Toxic Air Pollutant Vehicle Exhaust Emissions with Reformulated Gasolines," SAE Technical Paper 912324, 1991, https://doi.org/10.4271/912324.
- Lang J. M., et al., “Characterization of Particulate Emissions from In-Use Gasoline-Fueled Motor Vehicles”, SAE Paper 811186, October, 1981.
- Moulis C. E., “Formaldehyde Emissions from Mobile Sources and Potential Human Exposures”, AWMA Paper No. 89-34A.1, Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, 1989.
- The AQIRP has issued six Technical Bulletins and other reports describing initial results from several Phase I testing programs. Included in this set are Bulletins for current and older vehicles on Fuel Set A (T.B. #1 and #4). These reports and electronic Working Data Sets are available through the Coordinating Research Council, Atlanta, GA, (404)396-3400.
- MVMA Survey of Summertime Fuels in the United States, Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association, Detroit, MI, December, 1988.
- Pahl R. H. and McNally M. J., “Fuel Blending and Analysis for the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program”, SAE Paper No. 902098, October, 1990.
- Schuetzle D., et al., “Analytical Chemistry of Vehicle Emissions”, Analytical Chemistry, in press. Schuetzle D., et al., “Development of Advanced Emissions Speciation Methodologies for Phase I Studies”, SAE Oral Presentation, October, 1991.
- Code of Federal Regulations, 40CFR, 86.14090, p. 407, July, 1990.
- SAS is a statistical analysis package developed by the SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.
- Hochhauser A. M., et al., “The Effect of Aromatics, MTBE, Olefins and T90 on Mass Exhaust Emissions from Current and Older Vehicles”, SAE Paper 912322, October, 1991.