This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Effects of a Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filter on the Chemical and Biological Character of Emissions from a Diesel Engine Used in Underground Mines
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 01, 1991 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
This report presents results from a collaborative study conducted by Michigan Technological University (MTU) and the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines (Bureau). The objective was to assess the effects a catalyzed diesel particle filter (CDPF) and low sulfur fuel have on emissions. Emphasis was placed on determining the chemical and biological character of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from a diesel engine used in underground mining.
A Caterpillar 3304, pre-chamber, naturally aspirated, 84 hp engine was tested with and without a precious metal CDPF of the “quad” design. Samples were collected during transient and steady-state engine operation for carbon monoxide (CO), oxidies of nitrogen (NOx), flame ionization detectable hydrocarbons (HC), DPM, and XAD-2 resin organic component (XOC). DPM and XOC samples were Soxhlet extracted and analyzed for mutagenicity using the Ames assay and for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC).
The CDPF and low sulfur fuel significantly reduced the emissions of DPM, including the soluble organic fraction (SOF), by 90 and 99 percent. Gaseous HC, CO, and XOC were also reduced by 59, 79, and 82 percent, respectively. A significant reduction of 98 percent was observed in the DPM-associated mutagenic concentration. The CDPF significantly reduced DPM-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with 98 percent or greater reductions in all concentrations. Only two PAHs, fluoranthene and pyrene, were detected in any of the vapor phase samples without the CDPF and with the CDPF in place concentrations were reduced by 90 percent.
These results suggest that the use of a CDPF on underground mine vehicles should prove effective in lowering DPM concentrations without significant adverse affects on other exhaust pollutants.
|Technical Paper||Effect of Injection Pressure with Split Injection in a V6 Diesel Engine|
|Technical Paper||Pressure and Temperature Dependent Formation Process of up to Triple-Ring PAH from Benzene|
- S.T. Bagley - Michigan Technological University Houghton, MI
- K.J. Baumgard - Michigan Technological University Houghton, MI
- L.D. Gratz - Michigan Technological University Houghton, MI
- K.L. Bickel - U.S. Dept. of the Interior Bureau of Mines - Twin Cities Research Ctr. Minneapolis, MN
- W.F. Watts - U.S. Dept. of the Interior Bureau of Mines - Twin Cities Research Ctr. Minneapolis, MN
CitationBagley, S., Baumgard, K., Gratz, L., Bickel, K. et al., "Effects of a Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filter on the Chemical and Biological Character of Emissions from a Diesel Engine Used in Underground Mines," SAE Technical Paper 911840, 1991, https://doi.org/10.4271/911840.
- Daniel J.H., Jr. 1984 Diesels in underground mining-A review and an evaluation of an air quality monitoring methodology
- International Agency for Research on Cancer 1989 Diesel and gasoline engine exhausts and some nitroarenes IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans 46 IARC Lyon, France
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health 1988 Carcinogenic Effects of the Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Current Intelligence Bulletin 50. Dept. Health and Human Services (NIOSH) Publication No. 88-116
- Federal Register Oct. 4 1989 Approval requirements for diesel-powered machines and approval, exposure monitoring, and safety requirements for the use of diesel powered equipment in underground coal mines; Proposed Rules Mine Safety and Health Administration. 30 CFR Parts 7, 70 and 75 54 191 40950 40997
- Dorie LD Bagley ST Leddy DG Johnson JH 1987 Identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mutagenic subfractions of diesel exhaust modified by a ceramic particulate trap Environ. Sci. Technol. 21 757 765
- Schuetzle D. 1983 Sampling of vehicle emissions for chemical analysis and biological testing Environ. Health. Perspec. 47 65 80
- Haney RA 1990 Diesel particulate exposures in underground mines Society of Mining Engineers Annual Meeting Feb. 26 Mar 1 1990 Salt Lake City, UT 7
- Cantrell BK Rubow KL Watts WF Jr. Carlson DH 1991 Pollutant levels in underground coal mines using diesel equipment proceedings of 1991 AIME Meeting Feb. 1991 Denver, CO
- Dainty ED Lawson A Vergeer HC Manicom B Kreuzer TP Engler BH 1987 Diesel emissions reduction by ceramic filters employing catalysts or a fuel additive SAE Paper No. 870014 57 66
- McClure BT 1988 Characterization of the transient response of a diesel exhaust-gas measurement system SAE Paper No. 881320
- SAE Handbook 1990 Engine, fuels, lubricants, emissions, and noise 3 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale, PA
- Federal Register Tuesday Aug 21 1990 Regulations of fuels and fuel additive Fuel quality regulations for highway diesel fuel sold in 1993 and later calendar years Environmental Protection Agency
- Johnson JH Reinbold EO Carlson DH 1981 The engineering control of diesel pollutants in underground mining SAE Paper No. 810684
- Bagley ST Gratz LD Leddy DG Johnson JH 1990 Characterization of particle and vapor phase organic fraction emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with a particle trap having regeneration controls Final Research Report Health Effects Institute Cambridge, MA December 1990
- Dorie LD Bagley ST Wiczynski PD Shanxi JL Woon PV Leddy DG Johnson JH 1987 Collection and characterization of particulate and gaseous-phase hydrocarbons in diesel exhaust modified by ceramic particulate traps SAE Paper No. 870254
- Watts WF Jr. Baumgard KJ Cantrell BK Rubow KL 1989 Control of diesel particulate matter in underground coal mines Bureau of Mines Publication No. RI 9276 11
- Bagley ST 1991 Michigan Technological university Houghton, MI
- Perez JM Jass RE Leddy DG 1987 Chemical methods for the measurement of unregulated diesel emissions-carbonyls, aldehydes, particulate characterization, sulfates, and PAH/Nitro(NO 2 ) PAH CRC Report No. 551 Coordinating Research Council Atlanta, GA
- Kado NY Langley D Eisenstadt E 1982 A simple modification of the Salmonella liquid-incubation assay-Increased sensitivity for detecting mutagens in human urine Mutat. Res. 121 125 132
- Stoltz SL Bagley ST 1989 Analysis of diesel particulate matter and vapor phase samples using the microsuspension assay Environ. Molec. Mutagen 14 15
- Maron DM Ames BN 1983 Revised methods for the Salmonella mutagenicity test Mutat. Res. 113 172 215
- International Agency for Research on Cancer 1983 1984 1985 Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons 32 - 35 IARC Lyon, France
- Kaden DA Hites RA Thilly ING 1979 Mutagenicity of soot and associated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons to Salmonella typhimurium Cancer Res. 39 4152 4159
- Barfknecht TR Hites RA Cavalieri EL Thilly WG 1982 Human cell mutagenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components of diesel emissions 277 294 Toxicology Effects from Diesel Engines Lewtas J. New York Elsevier Publishing Co.
- LaVoie EJ Braley J Rice JE Rivenson A. 1987 Tumorigenic activity of non-alternate polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in newborn mice Cancer Lett. 34 15 20
- Gratz LD Bagley ST King KS Baumgard KJ Leddy DG Johnson JH 1991 The effect of a ceramic particulate trap on the particulate and vapor phase emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine SAE Paper No. 910609
- Niles Rn Tan VL 1989 Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons an mononitrated derivatives in air and diesel articulates Analytica. Chimica. Acta. 221 53 63
- Smith LR 1985 Study of the fuel composition and injection and combustion system type and adjustment on Ames bioassay, nitroaromatics, and PNA emissions from light-duty diesels Project CAPE 33083. Final Report Southwest Research Institute
- Snedecor GW Cochran WG 1967 Statistical Methods 6th The Iowa State University Press Ames, IA
- SAS Institute, Inc. 1985 SAS User's Guide: Statistics, version 5 SAS Institute, Inc. Gary, NC
- Lepperhoff G Widdershoven J Lutkemeyer G Hedin I An exhaust gas aftertreatment system to reduce particulates for full-size passenger cars SAE Paper No. 880003
- Ha K Lawson A Development of a diesel particulate trap system for a 6V-92TA engine 1989 SAE paper No. 890402
- McCabe RW Sinkevitch RM 1987 Oxidation of diesel particulates by catalyzed wall-flow monolith filters SAE Paper No. 870009
- McClure BT Baumgard KJ Watts, WF Jr. 1988 Effectiveness of catalytic converters on diesel engines used in underground mining Bureau of Mines Publication No. IC 9197
- Horiuchi M Saito K Ichihara S 1990 Effects of flow-through type oxidation catalysts on the particulate reduction of 1990's diesel engines SAE Paper No. 900600 183 193
- Wall JC Shimpi SA Yu ML 1987 Fuel sulfur reduction for control of diesel particulate emissions SAE Paper No. 872139
- Draper WM Hartman H. DB Kittelson WF Watts Baumgard KJ 1987 Impact of a ceramic trap and manganese fuel additive on the biological activity and chemical compositions of exhaust particles from diesel engines used in underground mines SAE Paper No. 87621
- Baumgard KJ Kittelson DB 1986 The influence of a ceramic particle trap on the size distributions of diesel particles SAE Transactions 95:56-69
- Gulati ST Merry RP 1984 Design considerations for mounting material for ceramic wall-flow diesel filters SAE Paper No. 840074
- Howitt JS Elliott WT Mogan JP Dainty ED 1983 Application of a ceramic wall flow filter to underground diesel emission reduction SAE Paper No. 830181
- Rasmussen RE Devillez G Smith LR 1989 Influence of particulate trap oxidizers on emission of mutagenic compounds by diesel automobiles J. Appl. Toxicol. 9 159 168
- Mogan JP Dainty ED Westaway KC Horton AJ 1984 Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and mutagens in the air of underground dieselized mines 10th World Congress on the prevention of Occupational Accidents and Diseases Ottawa-Hall May 1983 35 “Heavy-duty. Diesel Emission Control: A Review of Technology.”
- Agurell F Stensman C Salmonella mutagenicity of three complex mixtures assayed with the microsuspension technique Mut. at. Res.
- Westerholm R Alsberg T Strandell M Frommelin A Grigbriadis V Hantzaridon A Maitra G Winquist L Rannag U Egeback KE Bertilsson T 1986 Chemical analysis and biological testing of emissions from a heavy-duty diesel truck with and without two different particulate traps SAE Paper No. 860014
- Andrews GE Iheozor-Ejiofor IE Pang SW 1987 Diesel particulate SOF emission reduction using an exhaust catalyst SAE Paper No. 870251
- Lepperhoff G Kroon G Impact of particulate traps on the hydrocarbon fraction of diesel particles SAE Paper No. 850013
- Bagley ST Baumgard KJ Gratz LD 1991 Comparison of in-mine and laboratory-generated diesel particulate matter, biological activity, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon levels Proceedings of the Symposium on Respirable Dust in the Mineral industries