This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Cold Starts Using M-85 (85% Methanol): Coping with Low Fuel Volatility and Spark Plug Wetting
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published February 01, 1991 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Spark ignition engines are shown to have difficulty starting on high methanol-content fuels not only because of low fuel volatility but also because of electrical shorting of the ignition by methanol on the spark plugs. Using a concerted approach in which the fuel and ignition systems are optimized for fuel methanol, we have cold started a 2.5L spark ignition engine with port fuel injection down to -29°C on a 10.5 psi Reid vapor pressure M-85 (85% methanol, 15% gasoline). To minimize the amount of spark plug wetting, an exponential decay fuel algorithm is used which quickly generates flammable vapor mixtures while limiting the cylinder wetting. To overcome the spark plug wetting which does occur, ignition systems are used which have peak delivered currents twice as high as present-day automotive inductive ignitions.
CitationDasch, C., Brinkman, N., and Hopper, D., "Cold Starts Using M-85 (85% Methanol): Coping with Low Fuel Volatility and Spark Plug Wetting," SAE Technical Paper 910865, 1991, https://doi.org/10.4271/910865.
- Hagen D. L., “Methanol as a Fuel: A Review with Bibliography”, SAE Paper No. 770792.
- Fuel Methanol - A Decade of Progress, Society of Automotive Engineers Publication PT-36, 1990.
- Keller J.L., Nakaguchi G.M., and Ware J.C., “Methanol Fuel Modification for Highway vehicle use, Final Report”, U.S. Dept of Energy Report, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, July 1978, p. 96.
- Iwai N., Nagai K., Yasuda H., Ayusawa T., Kim Y.K., “A Study of Cold Startability and Mixture Fromation of High-Percentage Methanol Blends”, SAE Paper No. 880044.
- Bardon M.F., Rao V.K., and Gardiner D.P., “An Experimental and Theoretical Comparison of Methanol and Gasoline Cold Starting Performance,” SAE Paper No. 770792, September 1977.
- Davies A.S., Moon G. and Chippior W., “The Cold Start Performance of a Ford ‘Crown Victoria’ Flexible Fuel Vehicle, Using Gasoline and Methanol Blends M-25, M-70, M-85 and M-100,” National Research Council Canada Report CTR-FL-002, 1990.
- Gardiner D.P., Bardon M.F., Rao V.K., Battista V., “Review of the Cold Starting Performance of Methanol and High Methanol Blends in Spark Ignition Engines: Neat Methanol,” SAE Paper No. 902154, October, 1990.
- Siewert R.M. and Groff E.G., “Unassisted Cold Starts to -29°C and Steady-State Tests of a Direct-Injection Stratified-Charge (DISC) Engine Operated on Neat Alcohols,” SAE Paper No. 872066, November 1987.
- Jorgensen S.W., “Compression Temperatures in a Cold Cranking Engine,” SAE Paper No. 880045, March 1988.
- Swedish Motor Fuel Technology Co., “Fuel Alcohol Formulations,” U.S. Department of Energy Report DOE/CE/50181-H1, September 1988.
- American Petroleum Institute, “Alcohols and Ethers - A Technical Assessment of Their Application as Fuels and Fuel Components,” API Publication 4261, Second Ed., July 1988.
- Ito S., Sato A., Ichimay T., “Performance of a Methanol Fueled Car”, SAE Paper No. 811383.
- Mitchell D.K., “The Effects of Blending Agents on the Cold Weather Operation of Methanol Fuelled Automobiles,” Proceedings of the VI International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels Technology, Ottawa, Canada, May 1984, pp. 1-274 through 1-280.
- Panzer J., “Characteristics of Primed Methanol Fuels for Passenger Cars,” SAE Paper No. 831687, November 1983.
- Gardiner D.P., Caird S.G., and Bardon M.F., “Spark Ignition Engine Cold Starting with Methanol-Based Fuel Blends,” SAE Paper No. 872067, November 1987.
- Ament F., “1989 SAE Methanol Marathon-Technical Support, Competition Results, and Student Concepts,” Part of SAE Publication SP-804, February 1990, pp. 17-32.
- Suga T., Kitajima S., Nagashima T., Fujii I., “Feasibility Study of a Methanol-Fueled Vehicle at Honda,” Proceedings of the VIII International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, Tokyo, November 1988, pp. 375-380.
- Hochsmann G. and Gruden D., “Porsche Experiences with Dual-fuel and Flexible-Fuel Vehicles,” Proceedings of the VIII International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, Tokyo, November 1988, pp. 759-764.
- Risch C. E., “Methanol Fuels: A Specification Dilemma,” Presentation at the Fourth Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels, Windsor, Ontario, June 21, 1988.
- Beckwith P.P., Denham M.., Lang G.J., Palmer F.H., “The Effects of Hydrocarbon in Methanol Automotive Fuels,” presented at the VII International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, Paris, France, October, 1986.
- Bardon M.F., Nicks G.W., Rao V.K., and Vaivads R., “A Vapour Pressure Model for Methanol/Gasoline M85 Blends,” SAE Paper 870366, February, 1987.
- Nebolon J., Chan K.C., Browning L., Pefley R.K., “Multi-Point Injection of Alcohol Vapor as a Cold Starting Aid for Neat Alcohol Fueled Vehicles,” Proceedings of the Fifth International Alchol Fuel Technology Symposium, May, 1982, p. 2-29.
- Evers E.C., and Knox A.G., “Conductivity Studies in Methanol”, J.Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 1739 (1951).
- Marcus Y. and Glikberg S., “Recommended methods for the purification of solvents and test for impurities: methanol”, Pure & Appi. Chem. 57, 885 (1985).
- Robinson R.A. and Stokes R.H., Electrolyte Solutions (Academic Press Inc., NY, 1959), p. 162.
- Quinn E.L. and Jones C.L., Carbon Dioxide (American Chemical Society, NY, 1936), p. 105.
- Potter R.A., “Neat Methanol Fuel Injection Fleet Alternative Fuels Study,” 4th Washington Conference on Alcohol Fuels, November 1984.
- Lipari F. and Colden F.L., “Aldehyde and Unburned Fuel Emissions From Develpmental Methanol-Fueled 2.5L Vehicles”, SAE Paper No. 872051.
- Hopper D.H., “Capacitive Discharge/Inductive Ignition System”, Research Disclosure, No. 28035, August 1987. The basic hybrid capacitive-inductive ignition system concept is covered by U.S. Patent 3,972,315 held by Delco Electronics.
- Teets R.E. and Sell J.A., “Calorimetry of Ignition Sparks”, SAE Paper No. 880204.
- Prausnitz J.M., Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey (1969).
- TRC Thermodynamic Tables, Thermodynamics Research Center, Texas A&M University System, College Station, TX, October, 1985.
- Reddy S.R., “Evaporative Emissions from Gasolines and Alcohol-Containing Gasolines with Closely Matched Volatilities,” SAE Paper 861556, October, 1986.