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Facial Impact Tolerance and Response
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 27, 1986 by SAE International in United States
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Facial impact experiments were conducted on eleven unembalmed human cadavers. A 32 kg or 64 kg impactor with a 25 mm diameter, rigid, cylindrical contact surface was oriented in the left-right direction relative to the face and contacted the nose at the elevation of the infraorbital margins. The impactor was propelled toward the race along an anterior-to-posterior path, with contact velocities ranging from 10 to 26 km/h. Accelerometers mounted on the impactor and the occiput provided data for analyzing the dynamics of the impacts. While the threshold for nasal bone fractures was not determined, it appears that a peak force of about 3 kN (filtered 180 Hz) is a representative threshold for more severe fracture patterns. A preliminary dynamic force vs penetration response specification for the above mode of loading is offered. Analyses of the acceleration data suggest that current typical dummy heads (vinyl flesh over aluminum skull) will not provide proper acceleration data in facial impact environments; the face is too stiff.
CitationNyquist, G., Cavanaugh, J., Goldberg, S., and King, A., "Facial Impact Tolerance and Response," SAE Technical Paper 861896, 1986, https://doi.org/10.4271/861896.
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