This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Traffic Related Disabilities and Impairments and Their Economic Consequences
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published February 24, 1986 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
A study was made of the incidence of traffic related injuries, the related disability and impairment, and the resulting economic consequences. Crash data covering the incidence of injuries and their distribution by injury type and severity show that nearly three and a half million persons per year are injured in traffic crashes, with roughly half of them experiencing at least one day of disability. Brain and spinal cord injuries, both believed to have long term consequences, were examined in greater detail. Epidemiological data covering these injuries indicate about 60,000 persons suffer disabling brain injuries and about 4,000 persons suffer disabling spinal cord injuries each year. These are significantly larger incidence values for these two injury types than shown by the crash data. There is little quantatative data on the disability and impairment resulting from traffic crashes, nor is there agreement on how to report such data. An updata of earlier data on the economic consequences of crash related injuries shows that these injuries cost society about $15.4 billion ($1934) a year.
|Technical Paper||Variation in Nerve Fiber Strain in Brain Tissue Subjected to Uniaxial Stretch|
|Technical Paper||Transient Structural Response of the Linear Skull-Brain System|
|Technical Paper||Serious Injury in Very-Low and Very-High Speed Rear Impacts|
CitationLuchter, S., "Traffic Related Disabilities and Impairments and Their Economic Consequences," SAE Technical Paper 860505, 1986, https://doi.org/10.4271/860505.
Crash Injury Impairment and Disability-Long Term Effects
Number: SP-0661; Published: 1986-03-01
Number: SP-0661; Published: 1986-03-01
- The National Accident Sampling System is a national probability sample of all police reported accidents.Data are published annually by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
- The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is an injury severity scale developed by the American Association of Automotive Medicine, Morton Grove, Illinois, largely as an indication of the threat to life of particular injuries. The current version was published in 1980. The AIS levels are defined as follows: AIS 1 minor, AIS 2 moderate, AIS 3 serious, AIS 4 severe, AIS 5 critical, AIS 6 maximum (virtually unsurvivable), and AIS 7 severity unknown.
- “"The Injury Fact Book” Baker Susan P. Neill Brian O' Karpf Ronald S. Lexington Books, D. C. Heath and Company, Lexington, Massachussetts 1984
- “National Accident Sampling System Nonreported Accident Survey” et. al. Janet Greenblatt DOT HS 8D6 1981
- See the National Safety Council's “Accident Facts” published annually
- “The Economic Cost to Society of Motor Vehicle Accidents” DOT HS 806 342 1983
- “Severe Accidental Head Injury” Roberts, A. H. MacMillan 1979
- “Epidemioligical and Descriptive Studies, Part I: The Descriptive Epidemiology of Head Trauma in the United States” Frankowski Ralph F. Annegers John F. Steven Whitman . in “Central Nervous System Trauma Status Report - 1985” Edited by Donald P. Becker and John T. Povlishock, prepared for the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health.
- The estimate of 1985 population was based on resident population statistics from “Projections of the Population of the United States by Age, Sex, and Race: 1983 to 2080” U. S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports 25 952 U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C 1985
- “Injuries in America” National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1985
- “Mild Brain Injury: Damage and Outcome” Alves M. Jane A. in “Central Nervous System Trauma - 1985 op. cit
- “Epidemiological Aspects of Acute Spinal Cord Injury: A review of Incidence, Prevalence, Causes, and Outcome” Kraus Jess F. in “Central Nervous System Trauma - 1985 op. cit
- “Clinical and Research Considerations in Spinal Cord Injury” Green Barth A. John Klose K. Goldberg Myron L. in “Central Nervous System Trauma - 1985 op. cit
- “Impairment Scaling From The Abbreviated Injury Scale” His et. al. A. DOT HS-806 648 1983
- “Recovery from Cord Injury” Ducker Thomas B. Wallek Constance A. in “Central Nervous System Trauma - 1985 op. cit
- “Economic Consequences of Automobile Accident Injuries” U. S. Department of Transportation 1970
- “Societal Costs of Motor Vehicle Accidents, Preliminary Report” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 1972
- “1975 Societal Costs of Motor Vehicle Accidents” U. S. Department of Transportation, DOT HS 802 119 1976
- “The Estimation of Economic Savings from Increased Safety Belt Use” U. S. Department of Transportation, DOT HS 806 342 1985
- “The Costa of Motor Vehicle Related Spinal Cord Injuries” Smart, C. 8. Saunders, C. R. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety 1976
- “The Incidence of Economic Costs of Major Health Impairments” Hartunian, N. S., et. al. Lexington Books 1981
- “Alternative Approaches to Accident Cost Concepts” U. S. Department of Transportation, FHWA/RD-83-078 1984
- Committee on Trauma Research, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine, Injury in America, A Continuing Public Health Problem . National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1985
- Union of the Physically impaired (1976) : “Fundamental Principals of Disability” Union of the Physically Impaired, London
- Granger , Carl : Outcome of Comprehensive Medical Rehabilitation: An Analysis Based Upon the impairment. Disability and Handicap Model International Rehab. Med 7 45 50 1985
- McDaniel, J.W. Physical Disability and Human Behavior . New York Pergamon Press 1976
- Richardson , Stephen A. Attitudes and Behavior Toward the Physically Handicapped . Birth Defects: Original Article Series 4 15 34 1976
- MacLennan , Carol . Ommaya , Ayub K. Head Injury and Outcome: A Critical Review of Methodology . SAE Paper #
- Jagger Epidemiologic Features of Head Injury in a Predominantly Rural Population J. Trauma 24 40 43 1984
- Frankowski R. F. et.al The Descriptive Epidemiology of Head Trauma in the United States . Central Nervous Trauma. Status Report 1985 N.I.N.C.D.S., N.I.H., Bethesda, Maryland
- Gustafsson, H., Nygren, A., Tingvall, C. “Rating System for Serious Consequences (RSC) Due to Traffic Accidents. Risk of Death or Permanent Disability” 10th Experimental Safety Vehicle Conference Oxford, U.K. 1985
- Bull, J. P. “Disabilities Caused by Road Traffic Accidents and Their Relation to Severity Scores” Accident Analysis and Prevention 17:387-397 1985
- MacKenzie, E. J., Shapiro, S., Moody, M., Smith, R., “Predicting Post Trauma Functional Disability for Individuals-Without Significant Brain Injury” 28th Proceedings American Association for Automotive Medicine 173 187 1984
- Eastham, J. N., Jr. “A Construct Validity Analysis of the Abbreviated Injury Scale” ibid 3 155 171
- Hirsch, A. E. Eppinger, R. H., “Impairment Scaling from the Abbreviated Injury Scale” ibid 3 209 224
- States, J. D., Fenner, H. A. Jr. Flamboe, E., Nelson, W. D., Hames, L. N., “Field Application and Research Development of the Abbreviated Injury Scale” SAE 710873 15th STAPP Car Crash Conference, 1971
- The Abbreviated Injury Scale 1980 Revision. The American Association for Automotive Medicine, 40 2nd Avenue, Arlington Heights, Illinoid 60005.
- Routson, G. W. States, J. D., “Causes and Consequences of Lower Extremity Injuries” Proceedings 25th Conference American Association for Automotive Medicine, 1981 p 114.
- Reidelbach, W. Zeidler, F., “Comparison of Injury Severity Assigned to Lower Extremity Skeletal Damage Versus Upper Body Lesion” Proceedings of 27th Conference American Association for Automotive Medicine, 1983 141 158
- Cesari, D., et al “A Detailed Injury Severity Scale for Lower Limbs Based on Analysis of Injury Sustained by Pedestrians” SAE 831628.
- Reinfurt, D. W., et al “Injury Scaling Research” Final Report March 1978,.University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C. Report No. DOT-HS-7-01539.
- National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, The economic cost to society of motor vehicle accidents. U.S. Department of Transportation, Report No. DOT-HS-806-342 1983
- Mailiaris, A.C. Hitchcock, R. Hedlund, J. “A search for priorities in crash protection,” 1 33 Crash Protection, SP-513. Society of Automotive Engineers, War-rendale, Pa 1982
- Miller, T.R. Reinert, K.A. Whiting, B.E. Alternative approaches to accident cost concepts: state of the art U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Report No. FHWA/RD-83/079 1984
- Hirsch, A.E. Van Nguyen, T. Eppinger, R.H. Levine, R.S. Mackenzie, J. Marks, M. Ommaya, A.K. Impairment scaling from the abbreviated injury scale Chi Associates, Arlington, Va 1984
- Gasetz ueber den Verkehr mit Kraftfahrzeugen veroeffentlicht im Reichsgesetzblatt (RGB1) vom 03.05.1909
- Statistisches Bundesamt Wiesbaden Reihe 3.3 Strassenverkehrsunfaelle 1984
- Entwicklung von PKW im Hinblick auf einen volkswirtschaftlich optimalen Insassenschutz Schlussbericht Wolfsburg 1984
- Jaeger, W., Lindenlaub, K. H., Nutzen-Kosten-Untersuchungen von Verkehrssicherheitssnassnahmen FAT-Schriftenreihe 5, Frankfurt/M 1977
- Otte, D., Appel, H., Suren, E.G., Vergleich einer Verletzungsbewertung in amtlichen Verkehrsunfallanzeigen and einer internationalen Verletzungsschwere-Klassifikation (AIS) Int. Verkehrswesen Heft 1, 1982
- Sicherheitsmassnahmen im Strassenverkehr.Ergebnisse einer Sutzen/Kosten-Analyse vonausgewaehlten Massnahmen. FAT (Forschungsvereinigung Automobiltechnik e.V.)Schriftenrelhe Nr. 19
- “The Economic Cost to Society of Motor Vehicle Accidents” DOT HS 806 342 1983
- “Alternative Approaches to Accident Cost Concepts” FHWA/RD-83/Q79 1984
- “The Consumer Product Safety Commission Injury Cost Model” Technology and Economics 1980.
- Luchter, S. 1986 Traffic Related Disabilities and Impairments and their Economic Consequences Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA
- Bull, J.P. Roberts, B.J. 1973 Road Accident Statistics - A Comparison of Police and Hospital Information Accident Analysis & Prevention 5 45 53
- Roberts, A.H. 1979 Severe Accidental Head Injury MacMillan, London
- 1983 The Economic Cost to Society of Motor Vehicle Accidents. DOT HS 806 342
- Somerville, C.J. McLean, A.J. 1981 The Cost of Road Accidents. Road Accident Research. Unit, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
- Somerville, C.J. 1981 The Social and Economic Costs of Road Accidents American Association for Automotive Medicine, Proc. 25th Conference. Morton Grove, Illinois
- Selecki, B.R. Ring, I.T. Simpson, D.A. Vanderfield, G.K. Sewell, M.F. 1981 Injuries to the Head, Spine and Peripheral Nerves, Report on a Study Neurosurgical Society of Australasia, Sydney, Australia
- McLean, A.J. Robinson, G.K. 1979 Adelaide In-Depth Accident Study 1975-1979. Part 1: An Overview Road Accident Research Unit, University of Adelaide, Australia
- Frankowski, R.F. Annegers, J.F. Whitman, S. 1985 Epidemiological and Descriptive Studies Part 1: The Descriptive Epidemiology of Head Trauma in the United States. In Central Nervous System Trauma Status Report 1985, Becker, D.P., Povlishock, J.T. (Eds) National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda
- Kraus, J.F. 1985 Epidemiological Aspects of Acute Spinal Cord Injury: A Review of Incidence, Prevalence, Causes and Outcome. In ibid
- The Abbreviated Injury Scale American Association for Automotive Medicine, Arlington Heights, IL 1980.
- Malliaris AC, et al, A search for priorities in crash protection, SAE Paper 820242 1982
- Blincoe LJ Luchter S The economic costs to society of motor vehicle accidents, SAE paper 830614 1983
- Accident Facts - 1985 edition National Safety Council, Chicago 1985.
- Barancik JC, et al, Discrepancy in Vehicular crash injury reporting: Northeaster Ohio trauma study IV Accident Analysis and Prevention 17 147 154 1985
- Agran PF Dunkle DE A comparison of police accident reports vs. hospital monitoring systems in the study of noncrash events Proceedings American Assn. for Automotive Medicine 27 159 168 1983
- Spence ES A proposed injury code for automotive accident victims Proceedings American Assn. for Automotive Medicine 18 75 82 1974
- Major trauma outcome study American College of Surgeons, Chicago (underway).
- Baker SP, et al. Childhood injuries: A model data system Proceedings, American Association for Automotive Medicine 27 179 188 1983
- MacKenzie EJ et al. Predicting post trauma functional disability for individuals without significant brain injury Proceedings, American Association for Automotive Medicine 28 173 188 1984
- Committee on Rating of Mental and Physical Impairment American Medical Association, Guides to the evaluation of permanent impairment Chicago 1971.
- National Health Survey, National Center for Health Statistics US Department of Health and Human Services Washington, DC
- Committee on Trauma Research - Commission of Life Sciences of the National Research Council: Injury in America: A Continuing Health Problem (Washington, D.C.,National Academy Press 1985
- Sperry Roger Science and Mora1Priority , (New York Columbia University Press 1983
- Governor's Task Force: “ Report to the Secretary of Human Services,” Virginia Head Injury Association, Mimeo, 1985
- Vägtrafikolyckor med personskada 1984 Sveriges Officiella Statistik (LIHER). Stockholm 1985
- Hansson P G Road traffic casualties in a surgical department Acta Chir. Scand. Suppl 442 1974
- Tolagen A Trafikskadade Östeörgötland - En undersökning av skadade i trafiken i östergötlands Ian under 1,5 års tid. Linköping University Medical Dissertation No. 46. LinkÖping 1977
- FÖrsäkring och läkarintyg. FÖräskrings-branschens Serviceaktiebolag. Stockholm 1982
- Medicinsk invaliditet. Grunder fÖr granskning av kvårstaende men efter skada. FÖr-säkringsbranschens Serviceaktiebolag, Stockholm 1981
- Nygren Å Injuries to car occupants -Some aspects of the interior safety of cars Acta Oto laryngologica Suppl 395 1984
- Gustafsson H Nygren Å Tingvall C Rating system for serious consequences (RSC) 10th International FSV Conference, Oxford 1985
- Gustafsson F Nfygren Å Tingvall C Permanent medical impairment among road traffic victims and risk of serious consequences, RSC SAE International congress and Exposition 1986
- Carsten O. O'Day. J. “Injury Priority Analysis.” UMTRI Report No 84 24 1981
- Viano D.C. “Perspectives on Head Injury Research.” 1985 IRC08I Conference Proceedings and General Motors Research Laboratories Publication GMR-4989 1985
- Ommaya A. K. “Biomechanics of Head Injury.” In The Biomechanics of Trauma , A.M. Nahum and J. Helvin (eds.), Appleton-Century-Crofts, Norwalk 1984
- Horsch J.D. Lau I.V. Viano D.C. Andrzejak D.V. “Mechanism of Abdominal Injury by Steering Wheel Loading.” Proceedings of the 29th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE Publication P-167, SAE Paper No.851721 1985
- Engert S. F. “Age-Related Variation in Injury Occurrence to Automobile Occupantss: An Analysis of the 1982 National Accident Sampling System.” SAE Paper No. 860497 in SAE Special Publication SP-661, Crash Injury Impairment and Disability 1986
- Anderson T.E. “Spinal Cord Contusion Injury: Experimental Dissociation of Hemorrhagic Necrosis and Subacute Loss of Axonal Conduction.” J Neurosurg 62∶115-119 1985
- Monroe, Berkowitz et al.: The Economic Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, Rutgers University 1985 Available through Paralyzed Veterans of America
- Luchter, S. “"Traffic Related Disabilities and Impairments and Their Economic Consequences,” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 1985 19