This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Small Car Air Cushion Performance Considerations
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 01, 1985 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
A critical performance issue in the development of any air cushion restraint system is the dichotomy that exists between the inflation rate required to meet the 30 mph frontal, rigid barrier restraint performance requirements and the effect that this parameter has on increasing the risk of deployment-induced injuries to out-of-position occupants. In general, small cars experience greater vehicle deceleration levels than large vehicles in FMVSS 208, 30 mph frontal, rigid barrier tests due to tighter packaging of their front-end components. In order to meet the FMVSS 208 performance requirements for such cars, the small car air cushion must be thicker and inflated faster than the large car air cushion. Such air cushion technology will increase the risk of life-threatening, deployment-induced injuries to out-of-position occupants of the small car. A harm reduction analysis is done that indicates that a greater benefit can be derived from installing a large car air cushion technology in a small car than from installing the same air cushion technology in a large car, even though the FMVSS 208 restraint performance requirements are not met when installed in the small car. This statement is true for any occupant restraint system (belts, passive interiors) identically applied to both the large and small car since small car occupants will always be exposed to more severe collision severities due to the car's lighter mass and reduced front-end crush space. Based on the analyses presented, it is suggested that performance requirements addressing deployment-induced injury concerns of out-of-position occupants be added to FMVSS 208 for evaluating air cushion restraints and that the FMVSS 208, 30 mph frontal, rigid barrier test conditions be changed to a frontal test of equal collision severity for all car sizes.
|Improved Mechanical Restraints for Front Seat Compact Car Occupants
|Driving Factors and Future Developments of Airbag Technology
|Are Tank Pressure Curves Sufficient to Discriminate Airbag Inflators?
CitationMertz, H. and Marquardt, J., "Small Car Air Cushion Performance Considerations," SAE Technical Paper 851199, 1985, https://doi.org/10.4271/851199.
- Smith, G. R. Gulash, E. C. Baker, R. G. “Human Volunteer and Anthropomorphic Dummy Tests of General Motors Driver Air Cushion System” SAE 740578 1974
- Smith, G. R. Hurite, S. S. Yanik, A. J. Greer, C. R. “Human Volunteer Testing of GM Air Cushions” 2nd International Conference on Passive Restraints, SAE 720443 May 1972
- Campbell, D. D. “Air Cushion Restraint Systems Development and Vehicle Application” 2nd International Conference on Passive Restraints, SAE 720407 May 1972
- Klove, E. H. Oglesby, R. N. “Special Problems and Considerations in the Development of Air Cushion Restraint Systems” 2nd International Conference on Passive Restraints, SAE 720411 May 1972
- Horsch, J. D. Culver, C. C. “A Study of Driver Interactions With an Inflating Air Cushion” Twenty-Third Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE 791029 1979
- Patrick, L. M. Nyquist, G. W. “Airbag Effects on the Out-of-Position Child” 2nd International Conference on Passive Restraints, SAE 720442 May 1972
- Aldman, B. Andersson, A. Saxmark, 0. “Possible Effects of Airbag Inflation on a Standing Child” Proceedings of the International Meeting on Biomechanics of Trauma in Children Lyons, France 1974
- Takeda, H. Kobayashi, S. “Injuries to Children from Air Bag Deployments” 8th International Technical Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles 1980
- Mertz, H. J. Driscoll, G. D. Lenox, J. B. Nyquist, G. W. Weber, D. A. “Responses of Animals Exposed to Deployment of Various Passenger Inflatable Restraint System Concepts for a Variety of Collision Severities and Animal Positions” Proceedings of the Ninth International Technical Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles Kyoto, Japan Nov. 1982
- Stalnaker, R. L. Klusmeyer, L. F. Peel, H. H. White, C. D. Smith, G. R. Mertz, H. J. “Unrestrained, Front Seat, Child Surrogate Trajectories Produced by Hard Braking” Twenty-Sixth Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE 821165 Oct. 1982
- Montalvo, F. Bryant, R. W. Mertz, H. J. “Possible Positions and Postures of Unrestrained Front-Seat Children at the Instant of Collision” Proceedings of the Ninth International Technical Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles Kyoto, Japan Nov. 1982
- Wolanin, M. J. Mertz, H. J. Nyznyk, R. S. Vincent, H. J. “Description and Basis of a Three-Year-Old Child Dummy for Evaluating Passenger Inflatable Restraint Concepts” Proceedings of the Ninth International Technical Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles Kyoto, Japan Nov. 1982
- Mertz, H. J. Weber, D. A. “Interpretations of the Impact Responses of a 3-Year-Old Child Dummy Relative to Child Injury Potential” Proceedings of the Ninth International Technical Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles Kyoto, Japan Nov. 1982
- Prasad, P. Daniel, R. P. “A Bio-mechanical Analysis of Head, Neck and Torso Injuries to Child Surrogates Due to Sudden Torso Acceleration” Twenty-Eighth Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE 841656 Nov. 1984