This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Engine Variable Effects on Exhaust Hydrocarbon Composition (A Single-Cylinder Engine Study With Propane as the Fuel)
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published February 01, 1967 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Both the mechanism of individual hydrocarbon emission and the effects of engine variables on the individual hydrocarbon concentrations in the exhaust were investigated using a laboratory, single-cylinder engine with propane as the fuel. Individual hydrocarbon concentrations were measured, with a gas chromatograph, in samples obtained from the combustion chamber as well as from the exhaust system.
Results indicate that, at the conditions investigated, a source of each of the individual hydrocarbons in the exhaust is the reaction (or lack of reaction) which occurs near the wall either at the instant the flame is quenched or immediately thereafter; however, cracking of the fuel hydrocarbon in the chamber after flame passage and in the exhaust pipe may also be a source of the non-fuel hydrocarbons. Relative proportions of fuel and non-fuel hydrocarbons in the exhaust are very sensitive to engine operating conditions.
Total hydrocarbon concentration changes resulting from engine variable changes do not necessarily reflect, even directionally, changes in the individual hydrocarbon concentrations in the exhaust. Significant interactions exist among some of the engine variables: an engine variable effect observed at one air-fuel ratio, ignition-timing combination is not necessarily directionally the same as that observed at another air-fuel ratio, ignition-timing combination. Most of the engine variable effects can be qualitatively explained on the basis of the exhaust hydrocarbon emission mechanism discussed.
|Technical Paper||EXHAUST GAS HYDROCARBONS-GENESIS AND EXODUS|
|Technical Paper||A Model for Residual Gas Fraction Prediction in Spark Ignition Engines|
|Technical Paper||Residual Gas Fraction Measurement in Spark Ignition Engines|
CitationDaniel, W., "Engine Variable Effects on Exhaust Hydrocarbon Composition (A Single-Cylinder Engine Study With Propane as the Fuel)," SAE Technical Paper 670124, 1967, https://doi.org/10.4271/670124.
- Sturgis B. M., Biller W. F., Bozek J. W., and Smith S. B., “The Application of Continuous Infrared Instruments to the Analysis of Exhaust Gas.” SAE Technical Progress Series, Vol. 6 (1964), p. 81.
- Rounds F. G., Bennett P. A., and Nebel G. J., “Some Effects of Engine-Fuel Variables on Exhaust Gas Hydrocarbon Content.” SAE Transactions, Vol. 63, (1955).
- Stebar R. F. and Brownson D. A., “Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Air Injection in Reducing Exhaust Emissions.” SAE Transactions, Vol. 74, (1966).
- Jackson M. W., “Effects of Some Engine Variables and Control Systems on Composition and Reactivity of Exhaust Hydrocarbons.” Paper 660404 presented at SAE Mid-Year Meeting, Detroit, 1966.
- Chandler J. M., Smith A. M., and Struck J. H., “Development of the Concept of Nonflame Exhaust Gas Reactions.” SAE Technical Progress Series, Vol.6 (1964), p. 299.
- Jackson M. W., Wiese W. M., and Wentworth J. T., “The Influence of Air-Fuel Ratio, Spark Timing, and Combustion Chamber Deposits on Exhaust Hydrocarbon Emission.” SAE Technical Progress Series, Vol. 6 (1964), p. 175.
- Fagley W. S., Sink M. V., and Heinen C. M., “Maintenance and the Automobile Exhaust - Second Report.” Paper presented at SAE Spring Meeting, Detroit, 1962.
- Bartholomew E., “Potentialities of Emission Reduction by Design of Induction Systems.” Paper 660109 presented at SAE Annual Meeting, Detroit, 1966.
- Hagen D. F. and Holiday G. W., “The Effects of Engine Operating and Design Variables on Exhaust Emission.” SAE Technical Progress Series, Vol. 6 (1964), p. 206.
- Huls T. A., Myers P. S., and Uyehara O. A., “Spark Ignition Engine Operation and Design for Minimum Exhaust Emission.” Paper 660405 presented at SAE Mid-Year Meeting, Detroit, 1966.
- Scheffler C. E., “Combustion Chamber Surface Area, A Key to Exhaust Hydrocarbons.” Paper 660111 presented at SAE Annual Meeting, Detroit, 1966.
- Daniel W. A., “Flame Quenching at the Wall of an Internal Combustion Engine.” Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1956.
- Wentworth J. T. and Daniel W. A., “Flame Photographs of Light Load Combustion Point the Way to Reduction of Hydrocarbons in Exhaust Gas.” SAE Technical Progress Series, Vol. 6 (1964), p. 121.
- Shinn J. N. and Olson D. R., “Some Factors Affecting Unburned Hydrocarbons in Combustion Products.” SAE Technical Progress Series, Vol. 6 (1964), p. 137.
- Daniel W. A. and Wentworth J. T., “Exhaust Gas Hydrocarbons - Genesis and Exodus,” SAE Technical Progress Series, Vol. 6 (1964), p. 192.
- Gottenberg W. G., Olson D. R., and Best H. W., “Flame Quenching During High Pressure, High Turbulence Combustion.” Combustion and Flame, Vol. VII (1963), p. 9.
- Gad El-Mawla A. and Mirsky W., “Hydrocarbons in the Dead Space of Flames: An Approach to the Study of the Flame Quenching Process.” Paper 660112 presented at SAE Annual Meeting, Detroit, 1966.
- Agnew J. T., Bowles D. A., Cudjac A. A., Olsen R. A., and Drag E., “The Source of Unburned Hydrocarbons in Closed Vessel Explosions - Applications to Spark Ignition Engine Exhaust.” Paper WSCI 65-18 presented at Fall Meeting, Western States Section, The Combustion Institute, Santa Barbara, California, 1965.
- “Technical Report of California Standards for Ambient Air Quality and Motor Vehicle Exhaust.” State of California, Dept. of Public Health, Berkeley, 1959.
- Friedman R. and Johnston W. C., “The Wall-Quenching of Laminar Propane Flames as a Function of Pressure, Temperature, and Air-Fuel Ratio.” J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 21 (1950), p. 791.
- Lewis B. and von Elbe G., “Combustion Flames, and Explosions of Gases.” Academic Press, Inc.: New York and London, 1961, p. 303.
- McEwen D. J., “Improved Sampling Valve for Gas Chromatography.” J. Chromatog., Vol. 9 (1962), p. 266.