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some thoughts on optimum combinations of Wings and Vertical Thrust Generators in VTOL Aircraft
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published January 01, 1959 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
THIS PAPER reviews VTOL problems, indicating probable ways toward optimization of whole lifting and propelling system. Also discussed are the power and thrust requirements for optimum cruise and vertical take-offs and landings for propeller-driven and jet-propelled aircraft.
Three speed ranges offer the most promise for VTOL aircraft, if thrust requirements for cruise and take-off are to match. The ranges are centered around Mach numbers of 0.65, 0.8, and 2.0+. There is a possibility of overcoming the high thrust needed for hovering by use of bypass augmentation, special hovering jets, or favorable ground effects, the author reports.
CitationStepniewski, W., "some thoughts on optimum combinations of Wings and Vertical Thrust Generators in VTOL Aircraft," SAE Technical Paper 590040, 1959, https://doi.org/10.4271/590040.
- Journal of Helicopter Association of Great Britain, Vol. 11, December, 1957, pp. 299–339: “Tilt Wing Aircraft in Comparison with Other VTOL and STOL Systems,” by Stepniewski. W. Z.
- “Take-Off and Landing Distance and Power Requirements of Propeller-Driven STOL Airplanes,” by Kuhn. R. E. Paper presented at meeting of Institute of Aeronautical Sciences, 1957.
- Journal of Helicopter Association of Great Britain, Vol. 12, August, 1958, pp. 141–168: “Powered Lift Systems,” by Zimmerman. C. H.
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- To what extent the high-speed propeller capabilities will affect its static thrust characteristics is another question.
- For ducted arrangements it will be equal to the jet exit velocity. For free propellers and rotors it will amount to twice the induced velocity at the disc.
- The aerodynamic efficiency is defined as a ratio of ideal induced power required to produce a given thrust to that actually absorbed by the secondary (bypass) flow generator.
- This is thrust divided by the cross-section of the fully developed slipstream. For ducted fans and ducted propellers (with constant duct area), this will be equal to the disc loading, while for the unshrouded propellers and rotors it will amount to the doubled disc loading.
- Aero Engineering Review, Vol. 16, September, 1957, pp. 60–68: “Evaluation of VTOL Systems Suitable for Transport Aircraft,” by Stepniewski W. Z. and Mallen. J.
- NACA, TN 3982, 1957: “Exploratory Study of Ground Proximity Effects on Thrust of Annular and Circular Nozzles,” by von Glahn. U. H.
- STOL considerations and ease of transition from hovering to forward flight may dictate selection of a lower wing loading than optimum.
- “Supersonic Civil Air Transports wtih Considerations of Potential VTOL Capabilities,” by O'Malley. J. A. Paper presented at meeting of Institute of Aeronautical Sciences, 1958.