This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Passive Ice Protection Systems Lab Scale Testing Methodology
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published June 15, 2023 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Aircraft icing is a well-known problem that can have serious consequences for flight safety. To combat this problem, various ice protection systems (IPSs) have been developed and are currently used on most aircraft, including thermal ice protection systems. However, these systems can be costly, heavy and ineffective. Therefore, there is a need to improve the efficiency and response time of these systems. In recent years, research has focused on the development of hybrid systems that combine different ice protection technologies to achieve better performance.
In this sense, the use of an active element with a coating on its external part that improve its efficiency would be an important advance, but there is a wide range of active systems and even more of coatings and surface treatments. Therefore it would be helpful to have a test methodology that would allow a simple but thorough assessment of the performance of each passive system, and this is precisely what is proposed in this publication.
In order to decouple the behavior of the active system from the coating and to be able to evaluate the latter independently, a characterization sequence of passive systems has been developed considering different potential application areas and different icing conditions.
A novel aspect of this methodology is that the specimens were tested alongside an identical thermoelectric system used as reference that did not interfere with the coating. This allowed for the evaluation of the materials' properties with and without any application of energy.
The simple geometry of the specimens makes these tests feasible for coating techniques that do not accept complicated shapes. The aim of this methodology is to provide an accessible first evaluation of the materials in their use as IPSs. In addition, the test matrix allows the identification of the most appropriate applications for each of the passive system strategies studied.
Some results of the materials tested in the project in which this work was carried out are shown to illustrate the potential usefulness of the methodology.
- Paloma García - National Institute of Aerospace
- Julio Mora - National Institute of Aerospace
- Francisco Carreño - National Institute of Aerospace
- Francisco Redondo - Airbus Defence and Space
- Rafael Rodriguez - Public University of Navarre
- Pedro Rivero - Public University of Navarre
- Adrian Vicente - Public University of Navarre
- Carolina Acosta - AIMPLAS Plastics Technology Centre
- Silvia Larumbe - Bantec Group
- Ángel Medrano - Asociación de la Industria Navarra
- Cristina Lecumberri - Asociación de la Industria Navarra
CitationGarcía, P., Mora, J., Carreño, F., Redondo, F. et al., "Passive Ice Protection Systems Lab Scale Testing Methodology," SAE Technical Paper 2023-01-1412, 2023, https://doi.org/10.4271/2023-01-1412.
- Thomas , S.K. , Cassoni , R.P. , and Macarthur , C.D. Aircraft Anti-icing and De-icing Techniques and Modeling Journal of Aircraft 33 5 1996 841 854
- Yang , K. , Liu , Q. , Lin , Z. , Liang , Y. et al. Investigations of Interfacial Heat Transfer and Phase Change on Bioinspired Superhydrophobic Surface for Anti-icing/De-icing International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 134 2022 105994
- Huang , W. , Huang , J. , Guo , Z. , and Liu , W. Icephobic/Anti-icing Properties of Superhydrophobic Surfaces Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 2022 102658
- Boinovich , L.B. , Emelyanenko , K.A. , and Emelyanenko , A.M. Superhydrophobic versus SLIPS: Temperature Dependence and the Stability of Ice Adhesion Strength Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 606 2022 556 566
- Ibáñez-Ibáñez , P.F. , Ruiz-Cabello , F.J.M. , Cabrerizo-Vílchez , M.A. , and Rodríguez-Valverde , M.A. Ice Adhesion of PDMS Surfaces with Balanced Elastic and Water-Repellent Properties Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 608 2022 792 799
- Zeng , D. , Li , Y. , Liu , H. , Yang , Y. et al. Superhydrophobic Coating Induced Anti-icing and Deicing Characteristics of an Airfoil Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 660 2023 130824
- Mu , Z. , Li , Y. , Guo , W. , Shen , H. et al. An Experimental Study on Adhesion Strength of Offshore Atmospheric Icing on a Wind Turbine Blade Airfoil Coatings 13 1 2023 164
- Piscitelli , F. Characterization in Relevant Icing Conditions of Two Superhydrophobic Coatings Applied Sciences 12 8 2022 3705
- Raji , A.-R.O. et al. Composites of Graphene Nanoribbon Stacks and Epoxy for Joule Heating and Deicing of Surfaces ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 8 5 2016 3551 3556
- Sánchez-Romate , X.F. et al. Multifunctional Coatings Based on GNP/Epoxy Systems: Strain Sensing Mechanisms and Joule’s Heating Capabilities for De-icing Applications Progress in Organic Coatings 167 2022 106829
- Ferrick , M.G. , Mulherin , N.D. , Haehnel , R.B. , Coutermarsh , B.A. et al. 2006
- Yeong , Y.H. , Loth , E. , Sokhey , J. , and Lambourne , A. Ice Adhesion Strength on Hydrophobic and Superhydrophobic Coatings 6th AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference 2014 2063
- Gao , L. , Liu , Y. , Ma , L. , and Hu , H. A Hybrid Strategy Combining Minimized Leading-Edge Electric-Heating and Superhydro-/Ice-Phobic Surface Coating for Wind Turbine Icing Mitigation Renewable Energy 140 2019 943 956
- Vicente , A. et al. Icephobic and Anticorrosion Coatings Deposited by Electrospinning on Aluminum Alloys for Aerospace Applications Polymers 13 23 2021 4164
- Mora , J. et al. Hard Quasicrystalline Coatings Deposited by HVOF Thermal Spray to Reduce Ice Accretion in Aero-Structures Components Coatings 10 3 2020 290
- Mohseni , M. , Recla , L. , Mora , J. , Gallego , P.G. et al. Quasicrystalline Coatings Exhibit Durable Low Interfacial Toughness with Ice ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 13 30 2021 36517 36526
- García , P. , Mora , J. , González del Val , M. , Carreño , F. et al. Considering Thermal Diffusivity as a Design Factor in Multilayer Hybrid Ice Protection Systems Coatings 12 12 2022 1952
- Redondo , F.J. Innovative Jet Pump Ice Protection System for A400M SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-2136 2015 https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-2136
- Mora , J. et al. Setting a Comprehensive Strategy to Face the Runback Icing Phenomena Surf. Coat. Technol. 2023 129585
- Fortin , G. , Beisswenger , A. , and Perron , J. Centrifuge Adhesion Test to Evaluate Icephobic Coatings AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference 7837 2010
- Rønneberg , S. , He , J. , and Zhang , Z. The Need for Standards in Low Ice Adhesion Surface Research: A Critical Review Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 34 3 2020 319 347
- Rehfeld , N. , Speckmann , B. , and Stenzel , V. Parameter Study for the Ice Adhesion Centrifuge Test Applied Sciences 12 3 2022 1583
- Kreder , M.J. , Alvarenga , J. , Kim , P. , and Aizenberg , J. Design of Anti-Icing Surfaces: Smooth, Textured or Slippery? Nat. Rev. Mater. 1 2016 1 15 10.1038/natrevmats.2015.3
- He , Z. , Xiao , S. , Gao , H. , He , J. et al. Multiscale Crack Initiator Promoted Super-Low Ice Adhesion Surfaces Soft Matter 13 2017 6562 6568 10.1039/c7sm01511a