This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Unregulated Emissions Characterization and Comparison for Two Off-Road Applications: A DPF and Non-DPF Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 29, 2022 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
As governmental agencies focus on low levels of the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compliance, new off-road applications are being reviewed for both regulated and unregulated emissions to understand the technological challenges and requirements for improved emissions performance. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has declared its intention to pursue more stringent NOX standards for the off-road market. As part of this effort, CARB initiated a program to provide a detailed characterization of emissions meeting the current Tier 4 off-road standards . This work focused on understanding the off-road market, establishing a current technology emissions baseline, and performing initial modeling on potential low NOx solutions. This paper discusses a part of this effort, focuses on the emissions characterization from two non-road engine platforms, and compares the emissions species from different approaches designed to meet Tier 4 emissions regulations. The engine platforms reflected the available technology for diesel particulate filter (DPF) and non-DPF aftertreatment architectures. A detailed emissions characterization of the gaseous and particulate emissions was performed to measure an extensive list of non-regulated emission measurements. These measurements included volatile organic compounds (VOC), aldehydes and ketones, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), elemental carbon and organic carbon (EC/OC), intermediate soluble organic compounds (IVOC), and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC). State-of-the-art analytical sampling and analysis methods were employed for the determination of the various exhaust species. The engines were evaluated using certification cycles (Non-Road Transient Cycle - NRTC and two Ramped Modal Cycles - RMC) and a low load application cycle (LLAC) developed from field applications. Results from this study indicated that both applications met Tier 4 regulations, and the aftertreatment produced unregulated emissions which were consistent with the type of aftertreatment employed. This work provided valuable data regarding engine and aftertreatment simulation models used to evaluate candidate current-technology, low NOX aftertreatment architectures.
CitationFanick, E., Sharp, C., and Zavala, B., "Unregulated Emissions Characterization and Comparison for Two Off-Road Applications: A DPF and Non-DPF Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2022-01-0587, 2022.
- Sharp , C. Off-Road Diesel Low-Emission Demo for Nitrogen (NOx), Particulate Matter (PM), and Toxics California Air Resources Board https://ww3.arb.ca.gov/research/single-project.php?row_id=68119
- Black , F. and High , L. Methodology for Determining Particulate and Gaseous Diesel Hydrocarbon Emissions 2020
- Duleep , K.G. Automotive Particulate Sampling Techniques 2020
- Schuetzle , D. Biochemical Applications of Mass Spectrometry John Wiley & Sons 1980
- Lee , F.S.C. and Schuetzle , D. Handbook of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Marcel Dekker Publishing Co 1981
- Gibson , T.L. , Ricci , A.I. , and Williams , R. Measurement of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Their Derivatives, and Their Reactivity in Diesel Automobile Exhaust Chem. Anal. Biol. Fate Polynuclear Aromat. Hydrocarb. Fifth Int. Symp. 1981 707 717
- Fanick , E.R. , Kroll , S. , and Simescu , S. Sampling System Investigation for the Determination of Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) Emissions From Engine Exhaust Experimental Set-Up 2020 10.4271/2015-01-1062
- EPA Title 40: Protection of Environment https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title40/40cfr1065_main_02.tpl 2008
- Siegl , W.O. , Richert , J.F.O. , Jensen , T.E. , Schuetzle , D. , Swarin , S.J. , Loo , J.F. , Prostak , A. , Nagy , D. , and Corp , C. SAE Technical Improved Emissions Speciation Methodology for Phase II of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program Hydrocarbons and Oxygenates 2020
- California Air Resources Board Procedures for the Determination of C 2 to C 12 Hydrocarbons in Automotive Exhaust Samples by Gas Chromatography Version 2.2 2007
- California Air Resources Board 2 5 2002
- California Air Resources Board 6 12 2002
- California Air Resources Board California Non-methane Organic Gas Test Procedures for 1993 through 20016 Model Year Vehicles Part F Determination of Aldehyde and Ketone Compounds in Automotive source Samples by High Performance Liquid Chromatography 2015
- CFR Title 40: Protection of the Environment Chapter 1, Subchapter U, Part 1065, Subpart L - Methods for Unregulated and Special Pollutants 2022
- California Air Resources Board Method 429 Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Emissions from Stationary Sources 1997
- Birch , M.E. and Cary , R.A. Elemental Carbon-Based Method for Monitoring Occupational Exposures to Particulate Diesel Exhaust Aerosol Science and Technology 25 October 1996 221 241
- Karanasiou , A. etal. Thermal-Optical Analysis for the Measurement of Elemental Carbon (EC) and Organic Carbon (OC) in Ambient Air a Literature Review Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss 8 10.5194/amtd-8-9649-2015