This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
A Simplified CO 2 and Fuel Consumption Model for Buses Derived from VECTO Simulations
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 05, 2021 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
New heavy-duty vehicles are simulated with the Vehicle Energy Consumption Calculation Tool (VECTO) to certify their fuel consumption and CO2 emissions in the European Union. The vehicle manufacturer runs the simulation tool and requires the vehicle components' characteristics to simulate the vehicle over standardized mission profiles. The detailed component characteristics required to run the tool are not always publicly available. In this work, a simplified model was developed to predict the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of heavy buses over the VECTO mission profiles. It requires only the basic vehicle properties as input, such as the air drag, tire rolling resistance, mass, drivetrain efficiency and auxiliary power use. The model was derived from detailed VECTO simulations of numerous variants of a diesel high floor bus, a diesel low floor bus and a CNG low floor bus. The simulation results were used to analyze the energy use and CO2 emissions over the different mission profiles. If the driving cycle contains fewer high-speed sections and more start-stop driving, the vehicle's air drag and rolling resistances have a lesser contribution to the overall energy use, in favour of the auxiliary power use and energy lost by braking. The proposed model can capture the general trend of the CO2 emissions well, with an average model error of less than 0.04% and a standard deviation of less than 0.6% for each mission profile. The average model error is less than 0.01%, considering all vehicle variants and mission profiles, and the standard deviation is less than 0.4%. The model can be applied to all bus subgroups and vehicles operated with different fuels or with a different engine efficiency by appropriately scaling the model coefficients.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|Unnamed Dataset 1|
|Unnamed Dataset 2|
|Unnamed Dataset 3|
|Unnamed Dataset 4|
|Unnamed Dataset 5|
|Unnamed Dataset 6|
|Unnamed Dataset 7|
|Unnamed Dataset 8|
|Unnamed Dataset 9|
|Unnamed Dataset 10|
- European Environment Agency
- European Commission 2018
- US Environmental Protection Agency 2016
- Ministry of Industry and Information Technology 2014
- Fontaras , G. , Rexeis , M. , Dilara , P. , Hausberger , S. et al. The Development of a Simulation Tool for Monitoring Heavy-Duty Vehicle CO2 Emissions and Fuel Consumption in Europe SAE Technical Paper 2013-24-0150 2013 https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-24-0150
- Fontaras , G. , Grigoratos , T. , Savvidis , D. , Anagnostopoulos , K. et al. An Experimental Evaluation of the Methodology Proposed for the Monitoring and Certification of CO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Vehicles in Europe Energy 2012 2016 354 364 10.1016/j.energy.2016.02.076
- European Commission VECTO User Manual 2021
- Zacharof , N. , Tansini , A. , Prado Rujas , I. , Grigoratos , T. et al. A Generalized Component Efficiency and Input-Data Generation Model for Creating Fleet-Representative Vehicle Simulation Cases in VECTO SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1280 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1280
- Tansini , A. , Zacharof , N. , Prado Rujas , I. , and Fontaras , G. 10.2760/551250
- Tansini , A. , Fontaras , G. , Ciuffo , B. , Millo , F. et al. Calculating Heavy-Duty Truck Energy and Fuel Consumption Using Correlation Formulas Derived From VECTO Simulations SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1278 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1278
- European Commission 2018
- Grigoratos , T. , Fontaras , G. , Tansini , A. , Giechaskiel , B. , et al.
- Grigoratos , T. , Broekaert , S. and Fontaras , G.
- Nam , E.K. 2003
- Wang , J. and Rakha , H. Fuel Consumption Model for Conventional Diesel Buses Applied Energy 170 2016 394 402 10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.02.124