This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 05, 2021 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Hydrogen may be used to feed a fuel cell or directly an internal combustion engine as an alternative to current fossil fuels. The latter option offers the advantages of already existing hydrocarbon fuel engines - autonomy, pre-existing and proven technology, lifetime, controlled cost, existing industrial tools and short time to market - with a very low carbon footprint and high tolerance to low purity hydrogen. Hydrogen is expected to be relevant for light and heavy duty applications as well as for off road applications, but currently most of research focus on small engine and especially spark ignition engine which is easily adaptable. This guided us to select modern high-efficient gasoline-based engines to start the investigation of hydrogen internal combustion engine development.
This study aims to access the properties and limitations of hydrogen combustion on a high-efficiency spark ignited single cylinder engine with the support of the 3D-CFD computation.
A high efficiency gasoline single cylinder engine was adapted for hydrogen combustion system with a direct injection and a platinum-free cold spark plug. The injection and camshaft phasing ranges were defined to limit the passage of hydrogen in the intake and exhaust manifolds. The experiments were focused on two operating points (2000rpm and 3000rpm at IMEP=10 bar) at various fuel-air equivalent ratios, fuel injection and air intake camshaft timings and in-cylinder charge motion, at high compression ratio (CR=14). 3D-CFD computation was carried out on CONVERGETM to visualize and understand the local mixing in the combustion chamber.
The study revealed that the highest indicated efficiency (close to 47%) coupled with low NOX and acceptable unburnt H2 emissions (respectively below 0.5g/kWh and 1% input energy) was obtained at lean mixture, early hydrogen injection and high tumble level. The pre-ignition known as one of the highest challenges in hydrogen combustion is successfully limited by adjusting the injection timing and camshaft phasing. 3D-CFD simulations showed that optimum fuel injection and intake camshaft timings should favor the homogenization of the mixture and avoid the presence of rich zones near hot spots to avoid pre-ignition.
CitationRouleau, L., Duffour, F., Walter, B., Kumar, R. et al., "Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2021-24-0060, 2021, https://doi.org/10.4271/2021-24-0060.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|Unnamed Dataset 1|
- Verhelst , S. and Wallner , T. Hydrogen-Fueled Internal Combustion Engines Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 35 2009 490 527 10.1016/j.pecs.2009.08.001.
- Yip , H.L. , Srna , A. , Chun Yin Yuen , A. , Kook , S. et al. A Review of Hydrogen Direct Injection for Internal Combustion Engines: Towards Carbon-Free Combustion Appl. Sci. 9 2019 4842 10.3390/app9224842.
- Yamane , K. Hydrogen Fueled ICE, Successfully Overcoming Challenges through High Pressure Direct Injection Technologies: 40 Years of Japanese Hydrogen ICE Research and Development SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-1145 2018 https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-1145
- Faizal , M. , Chuah , L.S. , Lee , C. , Hameed , A. et al. Reviews of Hydrogen Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines JMERD 42 3 2019 35 46 https://doi.org/10.26480/jmerd.03.2019.35.46
- Mahandule , R. , Karankoti , S. , and Patil , S. Performance Evaluation of Hydrogen Fuelled Spark Ignition Engine: A Review International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research 8 4 April-2017
- Li , H. , Karim , G. , and Sohrabi , A. Examination of the Oil Combustion in a S.I. Hydrogen Engine SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-2916 2004 https://doi.org/10.4271/2004-01-2916
- Singh , A.P. , Pal , A. , Kumar Gupta , N. , and Kumar Agarwal , A. Particulate Emissions from Laser Ignited and Spark Ignited Hydrogen Fueled Engines International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 42 2017 15956 15965 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.04.031
- Iida , N. Research and Development of Super-Lean Burn for High Efficiency SI Engine. Challenge for Innovative Combustion Technology to Achieve 50% Thermal Efficiency 9th Conference on Modeling and Diagnostics for Advanced Engine Systems (COMODIA) 2017 10.1299/jmsesdm.2017.9.PL-1
- Serrano , D. , Zaccardi , J.M. , Muller , C. , Libert , C. et al. Ultralean Pre-chamber Gasoline Engine for Future Hybrid Powertrains SAE Technical Paper 2019-24-0104 2019 https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-2460104
- Nakata , K. , Nogawa , S. , Takahashi , D. , Yoshihara , Y. et al. Engine Technologies for Achieving 45% Thermal Efficiency of S.I. Engine SAE Int. J. Engines 9 1 2016 10.4271/2015-01-1896.
- Kermani , J. , De Paola , G. , Knop , V. , Garsi , C. et al. An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Bore-to-Stroke Ratio on a Diesel Engine SAE Technical Paper 2013-24-0065 2013 https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-24-0065
- Dauphin , R. , Gautrot , X. , and Malbec , L.-M. Evaluation of New Combustion Concepts through Split of Losses Approach: EGR Dilution, Lean Burn and Higher Aerodynamics Strasbourg SIA Congress 2012
- Zaccardi , J.M. , Nicolas , F. , Rudloff , J. , and De Paola , G. Optimized Heat Release Rate for Enhanced Thermal Efficiency Under NO X , Noise and Peak Firing Pressure Constraints in Light-Duty Diesel Engine Proceedings of 4th ATZ International Engine Congress 21 22 February 2017 Baden-Baden Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH
- Lafossas , F. , Colin , O. , Le Berr , F. , and Menegazzi , P. Application of a New 1D Combustion Model to Gasoline Transient Engine Operation SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-2107 2005 https://doi.org/10.4271/2005-01-2107
- Richard , S. , Bougrine , S. , Font , G. , Lafossas , F.A. Berr , F. On the Reduction of a 3D CFD Combustion Model to Build a Physical 0D Model for Simulating Heat Release, Knock and Pollutants in SI Engines Oil & Gas Science and Technology - Revue de l'IFP 2009 64 3 223 242
- Yakhot , V. , Orszag , S.A. , Thangam , S. et al. Development of Turbulence Models for Shear Flows by a Double Expansion Technique Phys Fluids A Fluid Dyn 4 1992 1510 1520
- Amsden , A.A. 1997
- Issa , R.I. , Gosman , A.D. , and Watkins , A.P. The Computation of Compressible and Incompressible Recirculating Flows by a Non-Iterative Implicit Scheme Journal of Computational Physics 62 1 1986 66 82
- Chevillard , S. , Colin , O. , Bohbot , J. , Wang , M. et al. Advanced Methodology to Investigate Knock for Downsized Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Using 3D RANS Simulations SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0579 2017 https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-0579
- Truffin , K. and Colin , O. Auto-Ignition Model Based on Tabulated Detailed Kinetics and Presumed Temperature PDF - Application to Internal Combustion Engine Controlled by Thermal Stratifications International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54 23-25 2011 4885 4894
- Colin , O. , Pires da Cruz , A. , and Jay , S. Detailed Chemistry-Based Auto-Ignition Model Including Low Temperature Phenomena Applied to 3-D Engine Calculations Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 30 2005 2649 2656
- Xu , B. 2019
- Senecal , P.K. , Pomraning , E. , Richards , K.J. et al. Grid-Convergent Spray Models for Internal Combustion Engine CFD Simulations Niederschlag , H. and Proft , I. Recht auf Sterbehilfe: Politische, rechtliche und ethischePositionen Ostfildern, Germany Matthias GrunewaldVerlag Schwabenverlag 2012 697 710
- Senecal , P. , Richards , K. , Pomraning , E. , Yang , T. et al. A New Parallel Cut-Cell Cartesian CFD Code for Rapid Grid Generation Applied to In-Cylinder Diesel Engine Simulations SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0159 2007 https://doi.org/10.4271/2007-01-0159
- Takagi , Y. , Oikawa , M. , Sato , R. , Kojiya , Y. et al. Near-Zero Emissions with High Thermal Efficiency Realized by Optimizing Jet Plume Location Relative to Combustion Chamber Wall, Jet Geometry and Injection Timing in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen Engine International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 44 2019 9456 9465 doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.02.058
- Naganuma , K. , Honda , T. , Yamane , K. , Takagi , Y. et al. Efficiency and Emissions-Optimized Operating Strategy of a High-Pressure Direct Injection Hydrogen Engine for Heavy-Duty Trucks SAE Int. J. Engines 2 2010 132 140 https://doi.org/10.4271/2009-01-2683
- Tsujimura , T. and Suzuki , Y. Development of a Large-Sized Direct Injection Hydrogen Engine for a Stationary Power Generator International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 44 2019 11355 11369 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.09.178
- Ringler , J. , Gerbig , F. , Eichlseder , H. , and Wallner , T. Insights into the Development of a Hydrogen Combustion Process with Internal Mixture Formation Proceedings 6th International Symposium on Internal Combustion Diagnostics Baden Baden, Gemany 2004
- Stockhausen , W.F. , Natkin , R.J. , and Reams , L. 2003