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Effects of Crude Tall Oil based renewable diesel on the performance and emissions of a non-road diesel engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published July 21, 2021 by SAE International in United States
Environmental concerns and government policies aiming to increase biofuel shares have led to the search for alternative fuels from a variety of renewable and sustainable raw materials. The development of renewable Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) type fuels has been strong in the Nordic countries, partly due to the early use of tall oil from the forest industry as feedstock. An innovative production process to convert crude tall oil (CTO) – a residue of pulp production – into high-quality renewable diesel fuel was developed by a Finnish forestry company UPM. Paraffinic, high cetane and low aromatic CTO renewable diesel allows efficient and clean combustion, resulting in reductions of local air pollution in addition to not releasing any new CO2 into the atmosphere. This research investigated the influence of CTO renewable diesel on the performance and exhaust emissions of a modern non-road diesel engine. The examined fuels were neat CTO renewable diesel (BVN) and BVN blended with fossil diesel fuel oil (DFO) (50/50% v/v). Neat DFO served as the reference fuel. During a thorough test bench campaign, the engine was driven using the loads of the ISO8178 non-road steady state cycle. The test engine had no exhaust after-treatment system, and no engine or parameter optimizations were made during the tests. CTO renewable diesel proved to be beneficial in terms of CO and HC emissions. Over the NRSC, the reduction was 9 % for CO and 10 % for HC compared with DFO. The beneficial trend was most evident at low loads. Renewable fuel also slightly reduced brake specific NOx emissions. A significant 37 % reduction was observed in cycle-weighted particulate number (PN) emissions. CTO renewable diesel proved to be a high-quality, sustainable alternative to fossil diesel and fully compatible with existing non-road diesel engines.