This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Opportunities for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvements through Hybridization
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 06, 2021 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Event: SAE WCX Digital Summit
The objective of this study was to evaluate the fuel saving potential of various hybrid powertrain architectures for medium and heavy duty vehicles. The relative benefit of each powertrain was analyzed, and the observed fuel savings was explained in terms of operational efficiency gains, regenerative braking benefits from powertrain electrification and differences in vehicle curb weight. Vehicles designed for various purposes, namely urban delivery, utility, transit, refuse, drayage, regional and long haul were included in this work. Fuel consumption was measured in regulatory cycles and various real world representative cycles.
A diesel-powered conventional powertrain variant was first developed for each case, based on vehicle technical specifications for each type of truck. Autonomie, a simulation tool developed by Argonne National Laboratory, was used for carrying out the vehicle modeling, sizing and fuel economy evaluation. Performance based sizing rules implemented in Autonomie were used to determine the component sizes for the hybridized concept trucks. In addition to the conventional baseline, a 48V start-stop system, parallel pre-transmission system and a series plug in hybrid system were considered in this work.
This study shows that not all trucks can utilize engine downsizing as part of hybridization strategy. Hybrid trucks designed to match conventional vehicle performance in all functional requirements, will require engines that are comparably sized as the conventional counterparts. Plug in hybrids can have downsized engines and still meet performance goals, as the larger battery packs can be used to assist engine for a longer period of time. Depending on the drive cycle, the observed fuel economy for the hybrid powertrains will vary. It could be comparable to that of baseline vehicle in highway driving while resulting in over 30% fuel savings in more transient drive cycles.
CitationNieto Prada, D., Vijayagopal, R., and Costanzo, V., "Opportunities for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvements through Hybridization," SAE Technical Paper 2021-01-0717, 2021, https://doi.org/10.4271/2021-01-0717.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|Unnamed Dataset 1|
|Unnamed Dataset 2|
|Unnamed Dataset 3|
|Unnamed Dataset 4|
|Unnamed Dataset 5|
- U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 2020 Sep. 1, 2020 https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/aeo/pdf/aeo2020.pdf
- Stephens , T.S. , Vijayagopal , R. , Dwyer , M. , Birky , A. , and et al. Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies Office Research and Development Programs: Prospective Benefits Assessment for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles May 5, 2020 https://publications.anl.gov/anlpubs/2017/11/140256.pdf
- Minarcin , M. , Rask , E. , and Smith , M. Challenges and Opportunities in Adoption of Hybrid Technologies in Medium and Heavy Duty Applications SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-2251 2011 https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-01-2251
- Vijayagopal , R. and Rousseau , A. Benefits of Electrified Powertrains in Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles World Electr. Veh. J 11 12 2020
- Joshi , S. , Dahodwala , M. , Koehler , E. , Franke , M. et al. Trade-Off Analysis and Systematic Optimization of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Hybrid Powertrain SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-0847 2020 https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-0847
- Surcel , M. and Michaelsen , J. Feasibility Study of a Heavy-duty Tractor-Motorized Semi-Trailer Hybrid Electric Combination SAE Int. J. Commer. Veh 3 1 69 89 2010 https://doi.org/10.4271/2010-01-1932
- Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) Sep. 01, 2020 https://www.bts.gov/vius
- EPA Smart Way Efficiency Test Protocol Efforts in 2007 Sep. 10, 2020 https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=P1002KAD.txt
- Barnitt , R. FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 12-Month Report April 01, 2020 https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy11osti/48896.pdf
- Barroca Zero Emission Cargo Transport ZECT 1 San Pedro Bay Ports Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review June 3 2020 https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2020/06/f75/elt115_barroca_2020_o_4.27.20_748PM_JL.pdf
- T A Engineering Inc DOE Super Truck Program Benefits Analysis Dec. 2012
- Dalton , J. Cummins Electric Truck with Range-Extending Engine Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review June 3 2020 https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2020/06/f75/elt189_Dalton_2020_o_4.27.20_848PM_LR.pdf
- Islam , E. , Kim , N. , Moawad , A. , and Rousseau , A. Energy Consumption and Cost Reduction of Future Light-Duty Vehicles through Advanced Vehicle Technologies: A Modeling Simulation Study through 2050 June 2020
- CTRE, Iowa State University Evaluation of In-Use Fuel Economy and On-Board Emissions for Hybrid and Regular CyRide Transit Buses Oct. 10, 2020 http://publications.iowa.gov/14772/1/hybrid_transit_bus_w_cvr.pdf
- Chandler , K. , Eberts , E. , and Eudy , L. New York City Transit Hybrid and CNG Transit Buses: Interim Evaluation Results
- Zou , Z. , Davis , S. , Beaty , K. , O’Keefe , M. et al. A New Composite Drive Cycle for Heavy-Duty Hybrid Electric Class 4-6 Vehicles SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1052 2004 https://doi.org/10.4271/2004-01-1052
- O'Keefe , M. , Simpson , A. , Kelly , K. , and Pedersen , D. Duty Cycle Characterization and Evaluation towards Heavy Hybrid Vehicle Applications SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0302 2007 https://doi.org/10.4271/2007-01-0302
- NREL DriveCAT-Chassis Dynamometer Drive Cycles 2019 www.nrel.gov/transportation/drive-cycle-tool
- Lohse-Busch , H. Vehicle Electrification Increases Efficiency and Consumption Sensitivity 12th International Conference on Engines and Vehicles, SAE ICE2015 Sep. 13-17 2015 Naples