This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
LPG Direct Injection Engine for Medium Duty Trucks
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 27, 2020 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
This paper provides a summary of a Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) concept engine developed for medium duty applications (class 6-7 trucks) targeting high efficiency with a power density that matches turbocharged diesel engines. The turbocharged in-line 6 cylinder engine incorporates an advanced spark ignition combustion system design, a purpose built medium-duty class engine structure optimized for operation with a direct propane injection system, dual overhead cams with individual cam phasers and twin-entry turbocharger. The high tumble charge motion combustion system targeted for operation with direct injected (DI) LPG has resulted in an engine capable of producing up to 22 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) at high brake thermal efficiency (BTE) throughout the operating map.
The high BTE combined with low carbon to hydrogen ratio of LPG results in 12% lower Brake Specific CO2 (BSCO2) emissions on the heavy-duty FTP cycle when compared to a diesel engine of same displacement and power and 15-30% lower BSCO2 when compared to other commercially available medium-duty LPG engines.
The present work demonstrates total cost savings between 1 and 40% (depending on the cost differential between LPG and diesel) over 10 years on a drive cycle represented by the FTP cycle when compared to a diesel engine with similar displacement and torque curve. The ability to run at or close to Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) spark timing along with low pumping losses have ensured high BTE over the entire operating region of the engine.
CitationRengarajan, S., Liu, Z., Lerin, C., Stetter, J. et al., "LPG Direct Injection Engine for Medium Duty Trucks," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-5008, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-5008.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
- Jadun, P., McMillan, C., Seinberg, D., Muratori, M. et al. , “Electrification Futures Study: End-Use Electric Technology Cost and Performance Projections through 2050,” https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy18osti/70485.pdf.
- U.S. Energy Information Administration , “Diesel Fuel Retail Prices,” http://www.eia.gov/oog/info/wohdp/diesel.asp.
- U.S. Energy Information Administration , “Diesel Fuel Wholesale Prices,” http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_dist_dcu_nus_m.htm.
- U.S. Energy Information Administration , “Gasoline Retail Prices,” http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/data_publications/wrgp/mogas_history.html.
- U.S. Energy Information Administration , “Gasoline Bulk Prices,” http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/pet/hist/LeafHandler.ashx?n=PET&s=EMA_EPMR_PBR_NUS_DPG&f=M.
- U.S. Energy Information Administration , “LPG Wholesale Prices,” http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_wfr_a_epllpa_pwr_dpgal_w.htm.
- U.S. Energy Information Administration , “CNG Commercial Prices,” http://www.eia.gov/dnav/ng/ng_pri_sum_a_epg0_pcs_dmcf_m.htm.
- Krieck, M., Günther, M., Pischinger, S., Kramer, U. et al. , “Effects of LPG Fuel Formulations on Knock and Pre-Ignition Behavior of a DI SI Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines 9(1):237-251, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-1947.
- Oh, S., Lee, S., Choi, Y., Kang, K. et al. , “Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a Direct Injection LPG/Gasoline Spark Ignition Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-1461, 2010, https://doi.org/10.4271/2010-01-1461.
- “Propane/Butane Mixture in Countries around Europe,” https://www.mylpg.eu/useful/lpg-mixture.
- Kai, J., Morganti, A., Tien Mun Foong, A., Michael, J. et al. , “The Research and Motor octane numbers of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG),” Fuel 108:797-811, 2013.
- Leone, T., Christenson, E., and Stein, R. , “Comparison of Variable Camshaft Timing Strategies at Part Load,” SAE Technical Paper 960584, 1996, https://doi.org/10.4271/960584.
- Elrod, A. and Nelson, M. , “Development of a Variable Valve Timed Engine to Eliminate the Pumping Losses Associated with Throttled Operation,” SAE Technical Paper 860537, 1986, https://doi.org/10.4271/860537.
- Li, Y., Zhao, H., Stansfield, P., and Freeland, P. , “Synergy between Boost and Valve Timings in a Highly Boosted Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Operating with Miller Cycle,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1262, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-1262.
- Taylor, J., Fraser, N., Dingelstadt, R., and Hoffmann, H. , “Benefits of Late Inlet Valve Timing Strategies Afforded Through the Use of Intake Cam In Cam Applied to a Gasoline Turbocharged Downsized Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-0360, 2011, https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-01-0360.
- Krieck, M., Günther, M., Pischinger, S., Kramer, U. et al. , “Future Specification of Automotive LPG Fuels for Modern Turbocharged DI SI Engines with Today’s High Pressure Fuel Pumps,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 9(3):575-592, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-2255.
- Lutz, B., Stanglmaier, R., Matthews, R., Cohen, J. et al. , “The Effects of Fuel Composition, System Design, and Operating Conditions on In-System Vaporization and Hot Start of a Liquid-Phase LPG Injection System,” SAE Technical Paper 981388, 1998, https://doi.org/10.4271/981388.
- Acedo, E., Acosta, O., Angulo, A., Enriquez, O. et al. , “1997 UTEP LPP-FI Propane Challenge Vehicle,” SAE Technical Paper 980490, 1998, https://doi.org/10.4271/980490.
- Lacey, J., Poursadegh, F., Brear, M., Petersen, P. et al. , “Optical Characterization of Propane at Representative Spark Ignition, Gasoline Direct Injection Conditions,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0842, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-0842.
- Jacobs, T., Assanis, D., and Filipi, Z. , “The Impact of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance and Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-1068, 2003, https://doi.org/10.4271/2003-01-1068.
- Perfetto, A., Kameshwaran, K., Geckler, S., Zope, R. et al. , “Ethanol Optimized Powertrain for Medium Duty Trucks,” in ASME 2014 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF2014-5601.
- Smith, M. and Gonzales, J. , “Costs Associated with Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure,” Aug. 2014, https://www.afdc.energy.gov/uploads/publication/propane_costs.pdf.
- “EPA Heavy-Duty Highway Gasoline and Diesel Certification Data,” Aug. 2019, https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2019-02/heavy-duty-gas-and-diesel-engines-2015-present.xlsx.