This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Comparative Research on Emission Characteristic and Combustion Characteristic of Gasoline Direct Injection and Port Fuel Injection for Free-Piston Linear Generator
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 15, 2020 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
As a new type of energy, free-piston linear generator (FPLG) attracts more research on its stable operation and power performance, while less on its combustion and emission performance. So, in this paper, the emission characteristics of FPLG in two different modes are studied through a port fuel injection (PFI) mode which was verified by the experiment and a gasoline direct injection (GDI) mode. The results showed that: both the GDI mode and the PFI mode produced large amounts of nitrogen oxide (NOx) during the working process. But the GDI mode produced before the PFI mode and it produced nearly 2 times than the PFI mode. However, the formation rate of NOx in GDI mode is much lower than that in PFI mode. Meanwhile, in both modes, 90% of NOX was generated in the cylinder at the temperature higher than 1750K, and only about 10% of NOX was generated at a temperature lower than 1750K. As for carbon smoke (SOOT), accorded to the research results, the SOOT production in GDI mode was 25% lower than that in PFI mode, and the SOOT production rate in GDI mode decreased in certain stage. On the contrary, this phenomenon did not occur in PFI mode. However, the SOOT generated in both modes can be oxidized rapidly at a later stage to reach zero emissions.
- Xiao Dong Yan - Beijing Institute of Technology
- Huihua Feng - Beijing Institute of Technology
- Zhiyuan Zhang - Beijing Institute of Technology
- Limin Wu - Beijing Institute of Technology
- Zhifeng Tang - Beijing Institute of Technology
- Yao Wang - Beijing Institute of Technology
- Yunqi Liu - Beijing Institute of Technology
CitationYan, X., Feng, H., Zhang, Z., Wu, L. et al., "Comparative Research on Emission Characteristic and Combustion Characteristic of Gasoline Direct Injection and Port Fuel Injection for Free-Piston Linear Generator," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-2220, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-2220.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
- Mikal Sen, R., and Rosily, A.P. , “A review of free-piston engine history and applications,” Apply Therm Eng. 27:39-52, 2007.
- Goetz, M., and Peng, L.X. , “Free Piston Engine Its Application and Optimization,” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-0996, 2000, https://doi.org/10.4271/2000-01-0996.
- Jia, B., Zuo, Z., Tian, G., Feng, H., and Roskilly, A.P. , “Development and validation of a free piston engine generator numerical mode,” Energy Conversion and Management 91:33-41, 2015.
- Boru, J., Guohong, T., Huihua, F., Xing, Z.Z., and Roskilly, A.P. , “An experimental investigation into the starting process of free-piston engine generator,” Apply Energy 02:065, 2015.
- Kock, F., Haag, J., and Friedrich, H. , “The Free Piston Linear Generator-development of an Innovative, Compact, Highly Efficient Range-Extender Module,” SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1727, 2013, https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-01-1727.
- Tikkanen, S., Lammila, M., Herranen, M., and Vilenius, M. , “First Cycles of the Dual Hydraulic Free Piston Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-2546, 2000, https://doi.org/10.4271/2000-01-2546.
- Yuan, C.H., Zhang, P.B., Liu, Y., “Numerical evaluation of pollutant emissions of a two-stroke linear engine,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 26:18291-18303, 2019.
- Shi, C., Ji, C., Wang, S. et al. , “Numerical simulation on combustion process of a hydrogen direct-injection stratified gasoline Winkle engine by synchronous and asynchronous ignition modes,” Energy Conversion and Management 183:1-25, 2019.
- Shi, C., Ji, C., and Wang, S. , “et al. Effect of dual-spark plug arrangements on ignition and combustion processes of a gasoline rotary engine with hydrogen direct-injection enrichment,” Energy Conversion and Management 181:372-381, 2019.
- Shi, C., Jib, C., and Wang, S. et al. , “Effects of hydrogen direct-injection angle and charge concentration on gasoline-hydrogen blending lean combustion in a Winkle engine,” Energy Conversion and Management 187:316-327, 2019.
- Duan, C., Wang, X., Shu, S., Jing, C., and Chang, H. , “Thermodynamic design of Stirling engine using multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm,” Energy Conversion and Management 84:88-96, 2014.
- Toghyani, S., Kasaeian, A., and Ahmadi, M.H. , “Multi objective optimization of Stirling engine using new-ideal adiabatic method,” Energy Conversion and Management. 80:54-62, 2014.
- Boucher, J., Lan zetta, F., and Nika, P. , “Optimization of a dual free piston Stirling engine,” Apply Thermal Eng. 27(4):802-811, 2007.
- Zhenfeng, Z., Fujun, Z., Ying, H., Changlu, Z. et al. , “An experimental study of the hydraulic free piston engine,” Apply Energy. 99:226-233, 2012.
- Xiao, J., Li, Q., and Huang, Z. , “Motion characteristic of a free piston linear engine,” Apply Energy 87(4):1288-1294, 2010.
- Scott Goldsborough, S., Peter Van Blarigan . A Numerical Study of a Free Piston IC Engine Operating on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion. SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-0619, 1999, https://doi.org/10.4271/1999-01-0619.
- Scott Goldsborough, S., and Van Blarigan, P. , “Optimizing the Scavenging System for a Two-Stroke Cycle, Free Piston Engine for High Efficiency and Low Emissions: A Computational Approach,” SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-0001, 2003, https://doi.org/10.4271/2003-01-0001.
- Van Blarigan, P., Goldsborough, S., Paradise, N., and Wu, J. , Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Free Piston Linear Alternator[R] (Sandia: Sandia National Laboratories, 1998), 11.
- Kim, J., Bae, C., and Kim, G. , “Simulation on the effect of the combustion parameters on the piston dynamics and engine performance using the Wiebe function in a free piston engine,” Apply Energy 107:446-455, 2013.
- Mikalsen, R., and Roskilly, A.P. , “The design and simulation of a two-stroke free-piston compression ignition engine for electrical power generation,” Apply Therm Energy 28:589-600, 2008.
- Mikalsen, R., and Roskilly, A.P. , “The control of a free-piston engine generator. Part 1, Fundamental analyses,” Apply Energy 87(4):1273-1280, 2010.
- Kosaka, H., Akita, T., Moriya, K., Goto, S. et al. , “Development of Free Piston Engine Linear Generator System Part 1- Investigation of Fundamental Characteristics,” SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1203, 2014, https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-1203.
- Miao, Y., Zuo, Z., Feng, H., Guo, C. et al. , “Research on the combustion characteristics of a free-piston gasoline engine linear generator during the stable generating process,” Energies 9(8):655, 2016.
- Nandkumar, S. , Two-stroke Linear Engine (Morgantoen, West Virginia: West Virginia University, 1998).
- Clark, N., Mcdaniel, T.I., and Atkinson, R.J. , Modeling and Development of a Linear Engine. Vol. 30 (Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA: ASME, 1998), 49-57.
- Clark, N., Nandkumar, S., Atkinson, C. et al. , “Operation of a small bore two-stroke linear engine,” American Society of Mechanical Engineers Internal Combustion Engine Division (Publication) ICE. 31(1):33-42, 1998.
- Guo, C., Feng, H., Boru, J. et al. , “Research on the operation characteristics of a free-piston linear generator: numerical mode and experimental results,” Energy Conversion and Management 122:53-64, 2016.
- Huihua, F., Chendong, G., Chenheng, Y., and Yuyao, G. , “Research on combustion process of a free piston diesel linear generator,” Apply Energy 161:395-403, 2016.
- Jia, B., Zuo, Z., Feng, H., Tian, G., and Roskilly, A.P. , “Investigation of the starting process of free-piston engine generator by mechanical resonance,” Energy Proc. 61:572-577, 2014.
- Zhang, C., Chen, F.X., Li, L. et al. , “Free-Piston Linear Generator Control Strategy for Improving Output Power,” Energy 11(1):43-52, 2018.
- Yuan, C., Feng, H., Zuo, Z., and Li, Y. , “Tribo logical characteristics of piston ring in a free-piston engine for linear generator,” Energy Procedia 61:979-983, 2014.
- Feng, H., Guo, C., Boru, J. et al. , “Research on the intermediate process of a free-piston linear generator from cold start-up to stable operation: numerical mode and experimental results,” Energy Conversion and Management 122:153-164, 2016.
- Yuan, C., Xu, J., Feng, H., and He, Y. , “Friction characteristics of piston rings in a free-piston engine generator,” Int. J. Engine Res. 18(9):871-885, 2017.
- Mao, J., Zuo, Z., and Feng, H. , “Parameters coupling designation of diesel free-piston linear alternator,” Apply Energy 88:4577-4589, 2011.
- Bianehi, G.M., and Pelloni, P. , “Modeing the Diesel Fuel Spray Break up by Using a Hybrid mode,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-0226, 1999, https://doi.org/10.4271/1999-01-0226.
- Yuan, C., Liu, Y., Han, C., and He, Y. , “An investigation of mixture formation characteristics of a free-piston gasoline engine with direct-injection,” Energy. 02(063), 2019.
- Gosman, A.D., and Loannides, E. , “Aspects of computer simulation of liquid-fueled combustors,” Journal of Energy 7(6):482-490, 1983.
- Mao, J.L., Zuo, Z.X., Lin, W., and Feng, H.H. , “Multi-dimensional scavenging analysis of a free-piston linear alternator based on numerical simulation,” Apply Energy 88(4):40-52, 2011.
- Yuan, C.H., Jing, Y., He, Y.T., “Coupled dynamic effect of combustion variation on gas exchange stability of a free piston linear engine,” Applied Thermal Engineering. (173):626-636, 2019.
- Papagiannakis, R.G., and Hountalas, D.T. , “Correlation for thermal NOx formation in compression ignition (CI) engine fuelled with diesel and biodiesel,” Energy. 42:401-410, 2012.
- Papagiannakis, R.G., and Hountalas, D.T. , “Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a dual fuel compression ignition engine operated with pilot Diesel fuel and natural gas,” Energy Conversion and Management. 45(18-19):2971-2987, 2004.
- Hill, S.C., and Smoot, L.D. , “Modeing of nitrogen oxides formation and destruction in combustion systems,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 26(4-6):417-458, 2000.
- Yuan, C. et al. , “Effect of hydrogen addition on the combustion and emission of a diesel free-piston engine,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2018, doi:10.1016/ 2018.05.038.
- Jia, B., Zuo, Z., Feng, H.H., Tian, G., and Roskilly, A.P. , “Development Approach of a Spark Ignited Free-piston Engine Generator,” SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-2894, 2014, https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-2894.
- Boru, J., Andrew, S., Huihua, F., and Guohong, T. , “A fast response free-piston engine generator numerical mode for control applications,” Apply Energy 162:32-41, 2016.