This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Surrogate Fuel Formulation to Improve the Dual-Mode Dual-Fuel Combustion Operation at Different Operating Conditions
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 15, 2020 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Dual-mode dual-fuel combustion is a promising combustion concept to achieve the required emissions and CO2 reductions imposed by the next standards. Nonetheless, the fuel formulation requirements are stricter than for the single-fuel combustion concepts as the combustion concept relies on the reactivity of two different fuels. This work investigates the effect of the low reactivity fuel sensitivity (S=RON-MON) and the octane number at different operating conditions representative of the different combustion regimes found during the dual-mode dual-fuel operation. For this purpose, experimental tests were performed using a PRF 95 with three different sensitivities (S0, S5 and S10) at operating conditions of 25% load/950 rpm, 50%/1800 rpm and 100%/2200 rpm. Moreover, air sweeps varying ±10% around a reference air mass were performed at 25%/1800 rpm and 50%/1800 rpm. Conventional diesel fuel was used as high reactivity fuel in all the cases. Moreover, commercial 95 RON gasoline was used as reference to compare the different TRFs. The engine settings were managed to adjust the rate of heat release to that found with 95 RON gasoline. To do this, a quality index imposing a maximum deviation of 5% point-to-point between the HRR curves from both fuels was defined. The results suggest that PRF 95 with S0 has the most similar behavior compared to conventional 95 RON gasoline whatever the engine load. As the engine load increases, the sensitivity effect is more noticeable and iso-HRR operation was only possible for S0. At low and medium load, the TRFs present similar engine-out emissions with equal fuel consumption. At full load, the NOx emissions are increased with respect to the reference 95 RON gasoline without fuel consumption benefits. The results from the air variation for the different octane numbers demonstrated that the greatest differences are obtained for low air mass (i.e, higher EGR). In addition, the decrease of the octane number limits the maximum air increase due to the pressure gradients, requiring modifications in the engine settings that increase the soot formation.
CitationBenajes, J., Garcia, A., Monsalve-Serrano, J., and Sari, R., "Surrogate Fuel Formulation to Improve the Dual-Mode Dual-Fuel Combustion Operation at Different Operating Conditions," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-2073, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-2073.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 6]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 7]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 8]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 9]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 10]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 11]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 12]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 13]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 14]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 15]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 16]|
- Kalghatgi, G. , “Is It Really the End of Internal Combustion Engines and Petroleum in Transport?” Applied Energy 225:965-974, May 2018.
- International Energy Agency , The Future of Trucks: Implications for Energy and the Environment (OECD/IEA, 2017).
- U.S. Energy Information , Administration (EIA). Annual Energy Outlook 2018 with projections to 2050. https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/aeo/pdf/AEO2018.pdf. [accessed 26 Oct 2018].
- European Parliament , CO2 Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Vehicles. Available in http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2018/628268/EPRS_BRI(2018)628268_EN.pdf. Accessed in 22, October 2019.
- Serrano, J.R., Bermudez, V., Piqueras, P., and Angiolini, E. , “Application of Pre-DPF Water Injection Technique for Pressure Drop Limitation,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0985, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-0985.
- Ettireddy, P.R., Kotrba, A., Spinks, T., Boningari, T., and Smirniotis, P. , “Development of Low Temperature Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Catalysts for Future Emissions Regulations,” SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1520, 2014, https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-1520.
- Yamauchi, T., Takatori, Y., and Fukuda, K. , “Experimental and Numerical Analysis for a Urea-SCR Catalytic Converter,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0973, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-0973.
- Singh, N., Rutland, C., Foster, D., Narayanaswamy, K., and He, Y. , “Investigation into Different DPF Regeneration Strategies Based on Fuel Economy Using Integrated System Simulation,” SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-1275, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2009-01-1275.
- Reitz, R.D., and Duraisamy, G. , “Review of High Efficiency and Clean Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. 46:12-71, August 2014.
- Saxena, S., Bedoya, I.D. , Fundamental Phenomena Affecting Low Temperature Combustion and HCCI Engines, High Load Limits and Strategies for Extending these Limits. Volume 39, Issue 5, 2013, Pages 457-488, ISSN 0360-1285, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2013.05.002.
- Weall, A., Szybist, J., Edwards, K., Foster, M. et al. , “HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities Using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Development of a Production Intent Cam-Based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit,” SAE Int. J. Engines 5(3):1149-1162, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-1134.
- Olmeda, P., García, A., Monsalve-Serrano, J., and Sari, R.L. , “Experimental investigation on RCCI heat transfer in a light-duty diesel engine with different fuels: Comparison versus conventional diesel combustion,” Applied Thermal Engineering 144:424-436, November 2018.
- Benajes, J., Molina, S., García, A., and Monsalve-Serrano, J. , “Effects of Low Reactivity Fuel Characteristics and Blending Ratio on Low Load RCCI (Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition) Performance and Emissions in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine,” Energy 90:1261-1271, October 2015.
- Kokjohn, S.L., Hanson, R.M., Splitter, D.A., and Reitz, R.D. , “Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI): A Pathway to Controlled High-Rfficiency Clean Combustion,” International Journal of Engine Research 2011, 12:209-226, June 2011.
- Benajes, J., García, A., Monsalve-Serrano, J., and Villalta, D. , “Exploring the Limits of the RCCI Combustion Concept in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine and the Influence of the Direct-Injected Fuel Properties,” Energy Conversion and Management 157:277-287, 2018.
- Benajes, J., García, A., Monsalve-Serrano, J., Balloul, I., and Pradel, G. , “Evaluating the Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Operating Range Limits in a High-Compression Ratio Medium-Duty Diesel Engine Fueled with Biodiesel and Ethanol,” International Journal of Engine Research 18(1-2):66-80, 2017.
- Benajes, J., García, A., Monsalve-Serrano, J., and Boronat, V. , “Dual-Fuel Combustion for Future Clean and Efficient Compression Ignition Engines,” Applied Sciences 7(1):36, 2017.
- García, A., Monsalve-Serrano, J., Rückert Roso, V., and Santos Martins, M.E. , “Evaluating the Emissions and Performance of Two Dual-Mode RCCI Combustion Strategies Under the World Harmonized Vehicle Cycle (WHVC),” Energy Conversion and Management 149:263-274, 1 Oct 2017.
- Liu, H., Yao, M., Zhang, B., and Zheng, Z. , “Effects of Inlet Pressure and Octane Numbers on Combustion and Emissions of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine,” Energy & Fuels 22(4):2207-2215DOI, 2008, doi:10.1021/ef800197.
- Benajes, J., García, A., Monsalve-Serrano, J., and Villalta, D. , “Benefits of E85 Versus Gasoline as Low Reactivity Fuel for An Automotive Diesel Engine Operating in Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion Mode,” Energy Conversion and Management 159:85-95, March 2018.
- Splitter, D., Wissink, M., Kokjohn, S., and Reitz, R. , “Effect of E85 on RCCI Performance and Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0383, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-0383.
- García, A., Monsalve-Serrano, J., Villalta, D., Sari, R. Octane Number Influence on Combustion and Performance Parameters in a Dual-Mode Dual-Fuel engine, Fuel, Volume 258,2019,116140, ISSN 0016 2361, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.116140.
- Tao, M.P., Zhao, J., Szybist, P., Lynch, H. Ge Insights into Engine Autoignition: Combining Engine Thermodynamic Trajectory and Fuel Ignition Delay Iso-Contour, Combust Flame 2019;200:207-18, ISSN 0010-2180.
- Yates, A.D.B., Swarts, A., and Viljoen, C.L. , “Correlating Auto-Ignition Delays and Knock-Limited Spark-Advance Data for Different Types of Fuel,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-2083, 2005, https://doi.org/10.4271/2005-01-2083.
- Leppard, W.R. The Chemical Origin of Fuel Octane Sensitivity, SAE Technical Paper 902137, October 1990, https://doi.org/10.4271/902137.
- Leppard, W.R. , The Autoignition Chemistries of Primary Reference Fuels, Olefin/Paraffin in BinaryMixtures, and Non-Linear Octane Blending, SAE technical papers 922325 October 1, 1992 by SAE International https://doi.org/10.4271/ 922325.
- García, A., Monsalve-Serrano, J., Villalta, D., Sari, R. . Fuel Sensitivity Effects on Dual-Mode Dual-Fuel Combustion Operation for Different Octane Numbers, Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 201, 2019, 112137, ISSN 0196-8904, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2019.112137.
- Benajes, J., García, A., Pastor, J.M., and Monsalve-Serrano, J. , “Effects of Piston Bowl Geometry on Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Heat Transfer and Combustion Losses at Different Engine Loads,” Energy 98:64-77, March 2016.
- manufacturer manual, A.V.L. , Smoke Value Measurement with the Filter-Paper-Method. Application Notes. June 2005 AT1007E, Rev. 02. Web: https://www.avl.com/documents/10138/885893/Application+Notes.
- Morgan, N., Smallbone, A., Bhave, A., Kraft, M. et al. , “Mapping Surrogate Gasoline Compositions into RON/MON Space,” Combust Flame 157(6):1122-1131, 2010.
- Benajes, J., Pastor, J.V., García, A., Monsalve-Serrano, J. The potential of RCCI concept to meet EURO VI NOx limitation and ultra-low soot emissions in a heavy-duty engine over the whole engine map, Fuel 2015;159:952-61, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.07.064, ISSN 0016-2361.