This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Evaluation of Occupant Kinematics during Low- to Moderate-Speed Side Impacts
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
To be published on April 14, 2020 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
While nearly 50 percent of occupants in side-impact collisions are in vehicles that experience a velocity change (delta-V) below 15.0 kph (9.3 mph), full scale crash testing research at these delta-Vs is limited. Understanding occupant kinematics in response to these types of side impacts can be important to the design of side-impact safety countermeasures, as well as for evaluating potential interactions with interior vehicle structures and/or with other occupants in the vehicle. In the current study, two full-scale crash tests were performed utilizing a late-model, mid-size sedan with disabled airbags. The test vehicle was impacted by a non-deformable moving barrier on the driver side at an impact speed of 10.0 kph (6.2 mph) in the first test and then on the passenger side at an impact speed of 21.6 kph (13.4 mph) in the second test, resulting in vehicle lateral delta-Vs of 6.1 kph (3.8 mph) and 14.0 kph (8.7 mph), respectively. As can occur in real-world collisions, the initial impacts to the vehicle were followed by subsequent lower severity contacts. In both tests, Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) were restrained in the driver and right front passenger seats. The current study allowed for comparison of the near- and far-side occupant kinematics during the multiple vehicle contacts. The occupant kinematics were evaluated using high-speed video recordings of the collisions. Motion tracking was used to evaluate excursion magnitudes and excursion velocities during these collisions and demonstrated that, in general, the magnitudes of occupant excursion and velocity were greater in the higher-speed collision than in the lower-speed collision. Occupant motions relative to vehicle structures and relative to the other occupant were evaluated. In general, the kinematics included oscillatory responses of the ATDs following the initial motion toward the impact and return motion toward and beyond the original seated position. No significant occupant-to-occupant contact was seen in the current study, and head contact with vehicle side window glazing was only observed with the near-side ATD in the higher-speed impact where side curtain airbag deployment would have occurred.
CitationGeorge, J., Davis, M., Sharpe, S., Olberding, J. et al., "Evaluation of Occupant Kinematics during Low- to Moderate-Speed Side Impacts," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-1222, 2020.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
- Imler, S.M., Heller, M.F., Corrigan, C.F., Zhao, K. et al. , “The Effect of Side Impact Collision Delta-V, Restraint Status, and Occupant Position on Injury Outcome,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-1158, 2010, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2010-01-1158.
- Davis, M. and Company, Inc. , “National Telephone Survey of Reported and Unreported Motor Vehicle Crashes,” NHTSA Technical Report, DO HS 8122 183, 2015.
- Gabler, H.C., Digges, K., Fildes, B.N., and Sparke, L. , “Side Impact Injury Risk for Belted Far Side Passenger Vehicle Occupants,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0287, 2005, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2005-01-0287.
- Digges, K., Gabler, H., Mohan, P., and Alonso, B. , “Characteristics of the Injury Environment in Far-Side Crashes,” in 49th Annual Proceeding AAAM, 2005.
- Zaborowski, A.V. , “Human Tolerance to Lateral Impact with Lap Belt Only,” in Proceedings of the 8th Stapp Car Crash Conference, 1964, Paper No. 640843, https://doi.org/10.4271/640843.
- Zaborowski, A.V. , “Lateral Impact Studies - Lap Belt Shoulder Harness Investigations,” in Proceedings of the 9th Stapp Car Crash Conference, 1965, Paper No. 650955, https://doi.org/10.4271/650955.
- Matsushita, T., Sato, T.B., Hirabayashi, K., Fujimura, S. et al. , “X-Ray Study of the Human Neck Motion Due to Head Inertia Loading,” SAE Technical Paper 942208, 1994, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/942208.
- Bailey, M.N., Wong, B.C., and Lawrence, J.M. , “Data and Methods for Estimating the Severity of Minor Impacts,” SAE Technical Paper 950352, 1995, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/950352.
- Fugger, T.F., Randle, B.C., Wobrock, J.L., Welcher, J.B. et al. , “Human Occupant Kinematics in Low Speed Side Impacts,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0020, 2002, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2002-01-0020.
- Parenteau, C., Shah, M., Steffan, H., and Hofinger, M. , “Volunteer and Dummy Head Kinematics in Low-Speed Lateral Sled Tests,” Traffic Inj Prev 3:233-240, 2002, doi:10.1080/15389580213642.
- Parenteau, C. , “Far-Side Occupant Kinematics in Low Speed Lateral Sled,” Traffic Inj Prev 7:164-170, 2006, doi:10.1080/15389580500482005.
- Moffatt, E., Hare, B., Hughes, R., Lewis, L., et al. , “Head Excursions of Restrained Human Volunteers and Hybrid III Dummies in Steady State Rollover Tests,” in 47th Annual Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine 47:445-465, 2003.
- Yamaguchi, G.T., Carhart, M.R., Larson, R., Richards, D. et al. , “Electromyographic Activity and Posturing of the Human Neck During Rollover Tests,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0302, 2005, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2005-01-0302.
- Furbish, C., Welcher, J., Brink, J., Jones, B. et al. , “Occupant Kinematics and Loading in Low Speed Lateral Impacts,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1027, 2019, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1027.
- Skiera, J., Crosby, C., Bare, C., Paradiso, M. et al. , “Passenger Vehicle Dynamic Response and Characterization of Side Structure during Low- to Moderate-Speed Side Impacts,” SAE Int. J. Adv. & Curr. Prac. in Mobility 1(3):918-950, 2019, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0420.
- Bruno, A., Toney-Bolger, M., George, J., Koller, J. et al. , “Evaluation of Occupant Kinematics in Low- to Moderate-Speed Frontal and Rear-End Motor Vehicle Collisions,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1226, 2019, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1226.
- Toney-Bolger, M., Campbell, I., Miller, B., Davis, M. et al. , “Evaluation of Occupant Loading in Low- to Moderate-Speed Frontal and Rear-End Motor Vehicle Collisions,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1220, 2019, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1220.
- Pasquesi, S., Bruno, A., Courtney, A., Imler, S. et al. , “Risk of Concussion in Low- to Moderate-Speed Frontal and Rear-End Motor Vehicle Collisions Evaluated Using Head Acceleration-Based Metrics,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1218, 2019, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1218.
- Crosby, C., Skiera, J., Bare, C., Como, S. et al. , “Passenger Vehicle Response and Damage Characteristics of Front and Rear Structures during Low- to Moderate-Speed Impacts,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0415, 2019, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0415.
- Standard No. 208, “Occupant Crash Protection,” Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, 2018, 771-862.
- Insurance Institute for Highway Safety , “Side Impact Crashworthiness Evaluation, Crash Test Protocol (Version X),” 2017.
- SAE International Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice , “Instrumentation for Impact Test - Part 1 - Electronic Instrumentation,” SAE Standard J211-1, Rev. Mar. 2014.
- Feuerstein, D., Parker, K.H., and Boutelle, M.G. , “Practical Methods for Noise Removal: Applications to Spikes, Nonstationary Quasi-Periodic Noise, and Baseline Drift,” Anal Chem. 81(12):4987-4994, 2009, doi:10.1021/ac900161x.
- Bussone, W.R., Moore, T., Locey, C., and Cargill, R. , “Frontal, Lateral, and Free-Operation Impacts of Amusement Bumper Cars: Vehicle Kinematics and Occupant Kinematics,” SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0543, 2018, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2018-01-0543.
- The Abbreviated Injury Scale © , “2015 Revision,” AAAM, Chicago, IL, 2015.
- Viano, D.C. and Parenteau, C.S. , “Occupant-to-Occupant Contact Injury in Motor Vehicle Crashes,” Traffic Inj Prev 18:744-747, 2017, doi:10.1080/15389588.2017.1307970.
- Augenstein, J., Perdeck, E., Martin, P., Bowen, J., et al. , “Injuries to Restrained Occupants in Far-Side Crashes,” in 44th Annual Proceedings of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine 44:57-66, 2000.
- Digges, K. and Dalmotas, D. , “Injuries to Restrained Occupants in Far-Side Crashes,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-06-0149, 2001, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2001-06-0149.
- Newland, C., Belcher, T., Bostrom, O., Gabler, H.C., et al. , “Occupant-to-Occupant Interaction and Impact Injury Risk in Side Impact Crashes,” in Proceedings of the 52nd Stapp Car Crash Conference, Paper No. 2008-22-0013, 2008, https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-22-0013.
- Shibata, P., Roberts, J., Sprague, J., Light, A. et al. , “The Kinematic Analysis of Occupant Excursions and Accelerations during Staged Low Speed Far-Side Lateral Vehicle-to-Vehicle Impacts,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1030, 2019, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1030.