This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Modeling and Identification of an Electric Vehicle Braking System: Thermal and Tribology Phenomena Assessment
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 14, 2020 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
A rapidly shifting market and increasingly stringent environmental regulations require the automotive industry to produce more efficient low-emission Electric Vehicles (EVs). Regenerative braking has proven to be a major contributor to both objectives, enabling the charging of the batteries during braking and a reduction of the load and wear of the brake pads. The optimal sizing of such systems requires the availability of good simulation models to improve their performance and reliability at all stages of the vehicle design. This enables the designer to study both the integration of the braking system with the full vehicle equipment and the interactions between electrical and mechanical braking strategies. This paper presents a generic simulation framework for the identification of thermal and wear behaviour of a mechanical braking system, based on a lumped parameter approach. The thermal behaviour of the system is coupled back to the friction coefficient between the pad and the disk to assess its effect on braking performance. Additionally, the effect of wear and temperature on the generation of airborne particles is investigated. Subsequently, experimental data collected on a real EV is used to validate and tune the previously described simulation model, following a proposed validation procedure. The instrumentation method and challenges, as well as the experimental procedure used to collect the data on a chassis dynamometer and in real-world driving conditions, are described. Finally, simulation results for different driving scenarios are used to compare virtual and experimental results.
- Thomas D’hondt - Siemens Industry Software NV
- Bart Forrier - Siemens Industry Software NV
- Mathieu Sarrazin - Siemens Industry Software NV
- Tommaso Favilli - Università degli Studi di Firenze
- Luca Pugi - Università degli Studi di Firenze
- Lorenzo Berzi - Università degli Studi di Firenze
- Riccardo Viviani - Università degli Studi di Firenze
- Marco Pierini - Università degli Studi di Firenze
CitationD’hondt, T., Forrier, B., Sarrazin, M., Favilli, T. et al., "Modeling and Identification of an Electric Vehicle Braking System: Thermal and Tribology Phenomena Assessment," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-1094, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-1094.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
- European Environment Agency , “Electric Vehicles from Life Cycle and Circular Economy Perspectives,” 2018, doi:10.2800/77428.
- Ruan, J., Walker, P.D., Watterson, P.A., and Zhang, N. , “The Dynamic Performance and Economic Benefit of a Blended Braking System in a Multi-Speed Battery Electric Vehicle,” Applied Energy 183:1240-1258, 2016, doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.09.057.
- Zhang, J., Lv, C., Gou, J., and Kong, D. , “Cooperative Control of Regenerative Braking and Hydraulic Braking of an Electrified Passenger Car,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering 226(10):1289-1302, 2012, doi:10.1177/0954407012441884.
- de Santiago, J., Bernhoff, H., Ekergård, B., Eriksson, S., et al. , “Electrical Motor Drivelines in Commercial All-Electric Vehicles: A Review,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 61, 2, 475-484, 02 2012, doi:10.1109/TVT.2011.2177873.
- Wager, G., Whale, J., and Braunl, T. , “Performance Evaluation of Regenerative Braking Systems,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering 232(10):1414-1427, 2018, doi:10.1177/0954407017728651.
- Berzi, L., Favilli, T., Locorotondo, E., Pierini, M., and Pugi, L. , “Real Time Models of Automotive Mechatronics Systems: Verifications on “Toy Models” IFToMM ITALY 2018,” Advances in Italian Mechanism Science 68:141-148, 10, 2018, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-03320-0_15.
- Pugi, L., Favilli, T., Berzi, L., Locorotondo, E., and Pierini, M. , ““Brake Blending and Optimal Torque Allocation Strategies for Innovative Electric Powertrains,” ApplePies 2018,” Applications in Electronics Pervading Industry, Environment and Society 573:477-483, 2019, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-11973-7_57.
- Pugi, L., Favilli, T., Berzi, L., Locorotondo, E., and Pierini, M. , “Application of Regenerative Braking on Electric Vehicles,” in IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2019 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC/I&CPS Europe), 2019, 1-6, doi:10.1109/EEEIC.2019.8783318.
- Crolla, D.A. and Cao, D. , “The Impact of Hybrid and Electric Powertrains on Vehicle Dynamics, Control Systems and Energy Regeneration,” Vehicle System Dynamics 50:95-109, 2012, doi:10.1080/00423114.2012.676651.
- Grigoratos, T. and Martini, G. , “Brake wear Particle Emissions: A Review,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research International 22:10, 2014, doi:10.1007/s11356-014-3696-8.
- Robertson, A. and Gross, D. , “An Electrical-Analog Method for Transient Heat-Flow Analysis,” Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards 61:105, 1958, doi:10.6028/jres.061.016.
- Wahlstrom, J. , “A Comparison of Measured and Simulated Friction, Wear, and Particle Emission of Disc Brakes,” Tribology International 92:503-511, 2015, doi:10.1016/j.triboint.2015.07.036.
- Andersson, S. , “Wear Simulation,” in Advanced Knowledge Application in Practice, Fuerstner, I. (Rijeka: IntechOpen, 2010), Ch. 2, doi:10.5772/10349.
- Perricone, G., Matejka, V., Alemani, M., Valota, G. et al. , “A Concept for Reducing pm10 Emissions for Car Brakes by 50%,” Wear 396-397:135-145, 2018, doi:10.1016/j.wear.2017.06.018.
- Garg, B.D., Cadle, S.H., Mulawa, P.A., Groblicki, P.J. et al. , “Brake Wear Particulate Matter Emissions,” Environmental Science & Technology 34(21):4463-4469, 2000, doi:10.1021/es001108h.
- Kus, A., Isik, Y., Cakir, M., Coskun, S., and Ozdemir, K. , “Thermocouple and Infrared Sensor-Based Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Metal Cutting,” Sensors 15:1274-1291, 01, 2014, doi:10.3390/s150101274.
- Genta, G. and Morello, L. , The Automotive Chassis: 1: Components Design (Netherlands: Springer, 2009), doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-8676-2.