This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Active Grille Shutters Control and Benefits in Medium to Large SUV: A System Engineering Approach
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
To be published on April 14, 2020 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Whilst the primary function of the active grille shutters is to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the car, there are some secondary benefits like improving the warm up time of engine and also retaining engine heat when parked.
In turbocharged IC engines the air is compressed (heated) in the turbo and then cooled by a low temperature cooling system before going into the engine. When the air intake temperature exceeds a threshold value, the engine efficiency falls - this drives the need for the cooling airflow across the radiator in normal operation. Airflow is also required to manage the convective heat transfer across various components in the engine bay for its lifetime thermal durability. Grill shutters can also influence the aerodynamic lift balance thus impacting the vehicle dynamics at high speed. The vehicle HVAC system also relies on the condenser in the front heat exchanger pack disposing the waste heat off in the most efficient way. These requirements of maintaining optimal engine intake charge air temperature, managing condenser heat load, engine bay heat and aerodynamic lift balance pose contradicting challenges in finding the optimal energy balance within the control strategy.
This paper talks about the system engineering approach to the control strategy development of active grille shutters. A combination of 0D (Matlab-Simulink), 1D (GT Suite) and 3D CAE (Dassault Systemes Powerflow) tools were used to define the optimal control strategy. This paper also shows the testing & validation of the thermal results of a Jaguar Land Rover vehicle fitted with active grille shutters, with control strategy optimized to full scale wind tunnel, in a chassis dynamometer environment. The influence of the facility on the test results provides a unique insight into the relation between the facility fan (air handling unit) dimension and the charge air temperature of various different homologation chassis dynamometer emission facilities.
CitationDutta, N., Spenley, M., Cromback-Dugeny, P., Stegmann, B. et al., "Active Grille Shutters Control and Benefits in Medium to Large SUV: A System Engineering Approach," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-0945, 2020.
- The European Parliament and of the Council Setting Emission Performance Standards for New Passenger Cars as Part of the Community’s Integrated Approach to Reduce CO2 Emissions from Light-Duty Vehicles Place: EUR-Lex EC Regulation No. 443/2009.
- UNECE Global Technical Regulation No. 15, Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure, UNECE, Geneva, Switzerland, 2016, http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/doc/2016/wp29grpe/ECETRANS-WP29-GRPE-2016-03e_clean.pdf.
- https://ec.europa.eu/clima/sites/clima/files/transport/vehicles/docs/qna_proposal_post-2020_co2_targets_en.pdfCountries, Wanting Full Fleet Electrification by 2040.
- Millo, F., Tettamanzi, E.J., and Piero, P. , “Impact of WLTP Homologation Cycle on Passenger Cars Cost and CO2 Compliance.”
- Pavlovic, J., Marotta, A., and Ciuffo, B. , “CO2 Emissions and Energy Demands of Vehicles Tested under the NEDC and the New WLTP Type Approval Test Procedures,” Applied Energy 177:661-670, 2016.
- Mustafa, R., Schulze, M., Eilts, P., Küçükay, F. et al. , “Improved Energy Management Using Engine Compartment Encapsulation and Grille Shutter Control,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 5(2):803-812, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-1203.
- Bouilly, J., Lafossas, F., Mohammadi, A., and Van Wissen, R. , “Evaluation of Fuel Economy Potential of an Active Grille Shutter by the Means of Model Based Development Including Vehicle Heat Management,” SAE Int. J. Engines 8(5):2394-2401, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-24-2536.
- Mantovani, M., de Ciutiis, H., Daniere, P., and Shirahashi, Y. , “Innovative Konzepte zur thermo-akustischen Kapselung des Motorraums,” ATZ-Automobiltechnische Zeitschrift 112(1):20-25, 2010.
- de Souza, F., Raeesi, A., Belzile, M., Caffrey, C. et al. , “Investigation of Drag Reduction Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles Using Surface, Wake and Underbody Pressure Measurements to Complement Aerodynamic Drag Measurements,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0644, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0644.
- Blacha, T. and Islam, M. , “The Aerodynamic Development of the New Audi Q5,” SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 10(2):638-648, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-1522.
- Wolf, T. , “Developing a Theory for Active Grille Shutter Aerodynamics-Part 1: Base Theory,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-5063, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-5063.
- El-Sharkawy, A.E., Kamrad, J.C., Lounsberry, T.H., Baker, G.L. et al. , “Evaluation of Impact of Active Grille Shutter on Vehicle Thermal Management,” SAE Int. J. Mater. Manf. 4(1):1244-1254, 2011, https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-01-1172.
- Tian, Y. , “Fuel Efficiency Technology Impact on Radiator Thermal Durability,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0498, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0498.
- Cho, Y.-C., Chang, C.-W., Shestopalov, A., and Tate, E. , “Optimization of Active Grille Shutters Operation for Improved Fuel Economy,” SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars-Mech. Syst. 10(2):563-572, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-1513.
- Lan, K.T. , “Optimization of Vehicle Air Intake System and Air Charge Temperature for Better Engine Performance and Fuel Economy,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0206, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-0206.
- Makam, S., Dubbs, C., Roosien, Y., Lin, F. et al. , “Analytical Study of Thermal Management: A Case Study of Underhood Configurations,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0335, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-0335.
- Lang, K., Kropinski, M., and Foster, T. , “Virtual Powertrain Calibration at GM Becomes a Reality,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-2323, 2010, https://doi.org/10.4271/2010-01-2323.
- Martin, J.N. , “The Seven Samurai of Systems Engineering: Dealing with the Complexity of 7 Interrelated Systems,” in Proceedings of 14th Annual Symposium of the International Council on Systems Engineering, Toulouse, France, 2004.
- Simmonds, N., Tsoutsanis, P., Drikakis, D., Gaylard, A. et al. , “Full Vehicle Aero-Thermal Cooling Drag Sensitivity Analysis for Various Radiator Pressure Drops,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-1578, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-1578.
- Alajbegovic, A., Sengupta, R., and Jansen, W. , “Cooling Airflow Simulation for Passenger Cars Using Detailed Underhood Geometry,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-3478, 2006, https://doi.org/10.4271/2006-01-3478.
- Yuan, R., Dutta, N., Sivasankaran, S., Jansen, W. et al. , “Heat Retention Analysis with Thermal Encapsulation of Powertrain under Natural Soak Environment,” International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 147:118940, 2020.
- ECE/TRANS/180Add.15/Amend 3, https://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29gen/wp29glob_registry.html.
- Kasseris, E. and Heywood, J.B. , “Charge Cooling Effects on Knock Limits in SI DI Engines Using Gasoline/Ethanol Blends: Part 1-Quantifying Charge Cooling,” SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1275, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-1275.