This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Regeneration of Cathode Mixture Active Materials Obtained from Recycled Lithium Ion Batteries
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 14, 2020 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
The recycling of rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has attracted more attention in the past few years due to its tremendous advantages to the economy and environment. However, none of the currently developed recycling processes are completely economical for all types of LIBs. If the electrode active materials of spent LIBs can be effectively separated and directly regenerated to build new LIBs, the LIBs’ recycling process may become economical. Since all types of LIBs are usually recycled at the same time without sorting them considering the types of electrodes and manufacturers, the separation of electrodes materials in the filter cake, as the product of the recycling facilities becomes crucial. In this paper, we show that the anode and cathode mixture materials in the filter cake can be easily and effectively separated, and the resulted cathode mixture materials can be directly regenerated to be used to build new LIBs with multiple intercalating cathode materials. The proposed process starts with separating the cathode mixture and anode materials by adopting Stokes’ law for mineral separation; then, the separated cathode mixture is regenerated through a process involving heat treatment and lithiation. The experimental results confirm that (a) the complete and rapid separation of the anode and cathode mixture materials from each other are possible, (b) the cathode mixture can be regenerated, and (c) the capacity of the half-cells built from both regenerated cathode mixture and fresh cathode mixture materials are relatively close to each other. This research is continuing to evaluate the cycling and calendar life of the regenerated cathode mixture as well as the performance of the blended and fresh cathode mixture materials.
CitationAl-Shammari, H. and Farhad, S., "Regeneration of Cathode Mixture Active Materials Obtained from Recycled Lithium Ion Batteries," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-0864, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-0864.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
- Ku, H., Jung, Y., Jo, M., Park, S. et al. , “Recycling of Spent Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials by Ammoniacal Leaching,” Journal of Hazardous Materials 313:138-146, 2016.
- Paulino, J.F., Busnardo, N.G., and Afonso, J.C. , “Recovery of Valuable Elements from Spent Li-Batteries,” Journal of Hazardous Materials 150:843-849, 2008.
- Yang, Y., Song, S., Lei, S., Sun, W. et al. , “A Process for Combination of Recycling Lithium and Regenerating Graphite from Spent Lithium-Ion Battery,” Waste Management 85:529-537, 2019.
- Dunn, J.B., Gaines, L., Sullivan, J., and Wang, M.Q. , “Impact of Recycling on Cradle-to-Gate Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Automotive Lithium-Ion Batteries,” Environmental Science and Technology 46:12704-12710, 2012.
- Diekmann, J., Hanisch, C., Froböse, L., Schälicke, G. et al. , “Ecological Recycling of Lithium-Ion Batteries from Electric Vehicles with Focus on Mechanical Processes,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society 164:A6184-A6191, 2017.
- Nie, X.-J., Xi, X.-T., Yang, Y., Ning, Q.-L. et al. , “Recycled LiMn2O4 from the Spent Lithium Ion Batteries as Cathode Material for Sodium Ion Batteries: Electrochemical Properties, Structural Evolution and Electrode Kinetics,” Electrochimica Acta 320:134626, 2019.
- Chagnes, A. and Pospiech, B. , “A Brief Review on Hydrometallurgical Technologies for Recycling Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 88:1191-1199, 2013.
- Hu, J., Zhang, J., Li, H., Chen, Y., and Wang, C. , “A Promising Approach for the Recovery of High Value-Added Metals from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries,” Journal of Power Sources 351:192-199, 2017.
- Zhao, J., Qu, X., Qu, J., Zhang, B. et al. , “Extraction of co and Li2CO3 from Cathode Materials of Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries through a Combined Acid-Leaching and Electro-Deoxidation Approach,” Journal of Hazardous Materials 120817, 2019.
- Xu, J., Thomas, H., Francis, R.W., Lum, K.R. et al. , “A Review of Processes and Technologies for the Recycling of Lithium-Ion Secondary Batteries,” Journal of Power Sources 177:512-527, 2008.
- Yang, Y., Meng, X., Cao, H., Lin, X. et al. , “Selective Recovery of Lithium from Spent Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries: A Sustainable Process,” Green chemistry 20:3121-3133, 2018.
- Pegoretti, V.C.B., Dixini, P.V.M., Smecellato, P.C., Biaggio, S.R., and Freitas, M. , “Thermal Synthesis, Characterization and Electrochemical Study of High-Temperature (HT) LiCoO2 Obtained from co (OH) 2 Recycled of Spent Lithium Ion Batteries,” Materials Research Bulletin 86:5-9, 2017.
- Nie, H., Xu, L., Song, D., Song, J. et al. , “LiCoO2: Recycling from Spent Batteries and Regeneration with Solid State Synthesis,” Green Chemistry 17:1276-1280, 2015.
- MTI Corporation Company , https://www.mtixtl.com/nanopowerandchemicalsa-z.aspx, October 21, 2019.
- Hauff, P.L. and Airey, J. , “The Handling, Hazards, and Maintenance of Heavy Liquids in the Geologic Laboratory,” NASA STI/Recon Technical Report No. 82, 1980.
- Al-Shammari, H., Esmaeeli, R., Aliniagerdroudbari, H., Alhadri, M., Hashemi, S.R., Zarrin, H., and Farhad, S. , “Recycling Lithium-Ion Battery: Mechanical Separation of Mixed Cathode Active Materials,” in International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2019.