This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Measurement of Fuel Distribution in a Small PFI Spark-Ignition Engine Using Tracer PLIF
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 14, 2020 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
The distribution of fuel-air mixture inside the engine cylinder strongly influences the combustion process. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) is commonly used for fuel distribution measurement, however, it is mostly reported on moderate- to large-sized engines. In the present work, PLIF is applied to measure the fuel distribution inside the cylinder of a small, four-stroke, port-fuel-injection (PFI), spark-ignition engine with displacement volume of 110 cm3. Iso-octane was used as the base fuel, and 3-pentanone (15% by volume) was added as a fluorescent tracer in the base fuel. The effect of equivalence ratio, considering ϕ = 1.2, 1.0, and 0.8, on in-cylinder fuel distribution was studied with low throttle opening of 25% at 1200 rpm. PLIF images were recorded at different crank angle degrees during both intake and compression strokes over a swirl measurement plane located at the TDC position. It was found that the fuel stratification was present from intake to even late compression. Also, no significant change in fuel distribution patterns was noted at different crank angle degrees for a given operating condition. Instantaneous PLIF images of the fuel distribution at 330 CAD during compression also showed a considerable variation from one cycle to the next. As expected, the fluorescence signal intensity was increased with the increase in equivalence ratio. Results also showed that the fuel distribution was much more noticeable near the diametrically opposite location to the spark plug on the tested engine, and continued to exist till late compression (i.e. 330 CAD).
CitationGarg, S., Mittal, M., Sahu, S., and Lakshminarasimhan, V., "Measurement of Fuel Distribution in a Small PFI Spark-Ignition Engine Using Tracer PLIF," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-0786, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-0786.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
- Baritaud, T.A. and Heinze, T.A. , “Gasoline Distribution Measurements with PLIF in a SI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 922355, 1992, https://doi.org/10.4271/922355.
- Pradheep, R., Mittal, M., Mehta, P.S., Balaji, V. et al. , “Imaging of Fuel Distribution in a PFI Spark-Ignition Engine Using Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” in 18th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (ILASS-Asia 2016), Chennai, India, 2016.
- Zhao, H. , “Laser Ediagnostics and Optical Measurement Techniques in Internal Combustion Engines,” SAE International, 2012, ISBN: 978-0-7680-5782-9.
- Tanaka, T., Fujimoto, M., and Tabata, M. , “Planar Measurements of NO in an S.I. Engine Based on Laser Induced Fluorescence,” SAE Technical Paper 970877, 1997, https://doi.org/10.4271/970877.
- Zhang, R., Wermuth, N., and Sick, V. , “Impact of Fluorescence Tracers on Combustion Performance in Optical Engine Experiments,” SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-2975, 2004, https://doi.org/10.4271/2004-01-2975.
- McGee, J., Alger, T., Blobaum, E., and Wooldridge, S. , “Evaluation of Direct-Injected Stratified Charge Combustion System Using PLIF,” SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-0548, 2004, https://doi.org/10.4271/2004-01-0548.
- Winklhofer, E., Philipp, H., Fraidl, G., and Fuchs, H. , “Fuel and Flame Imaging in SI Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 930871, 1993, https://doi.org/10.4271/930871.
- Lawrenz, W., Kohler, J., Meier, F., Stolz, W. et al. , “Quantitative 2D LIF Measurements of Air/Fuel Ratios during the Intake Stroke in a Transparent SI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 922320, 1992, https://doi.org/10.4271/922320.
- Itoh, T., Kakuho, A., Hishinuma, H., Urushiahara, T. et al. , “Development of a New Compound Fuel and Fluorescent Tracer Combination for Use with Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” SAE Technical Paper 952465, 1995, https://doi.org/10.4271/952465.
- Meyer, J., Haug, M., Schreiber, M., and Unverzagt, S. , “Controlling Combustion in a Spark Ignition Engine by Quantitative Fuel Distribution,” SAE Technical Paper 950107, 1995, https://doi.org/10.4271/950107.
- Weaver, C., Wooldridge, S., Johnson, S., Sick, V. et al. , “PLIF Measurements of Fuel Distribution in a PFI Engine under Cold Start Conditions,” SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-3236, 2003, https://doi.org/10.4271/2003-01-3236.
- Andersson, Ö., Juhlin, G., Ekenberg, M., Johansson, B. et al. , “Crank Angle Resolved HC-Detection Using LIF in the Exhausts of Small Two-Stroke Engines Running at High Engine Speed,” SAE Technical Paper 961927, 1996, https://doi.org/10.4271/961927.
- Kim, K., Choi, M., Lee, C., and Kim, W. , “In-Cylinder Fuel Distribution Measurements Using PLIF in a SI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 970509, 1997, https://doi.org/10.4271/970509.
- Swindal, J., Dragonetti, D., Hahn, R., Furman, P. et al. , “In-Cylinder Charge Homogeneity during Cold-Start Studied with Fluorescent Tracers Simulating Different Fuel Distillation Temperatures,” SAE Technical Paper 950106, 1995, https://doi.org/10.4271/950106.
- Li, Y., Zhao, H., Leach, B., Ma, T. et al. , “In-Cylinder Measurements of Fuel Stratification in a Twin-Spark Three-Valve SI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1354, 2004, https://doi.org/10.4271/2004-01-1354.
- Hishinuma, H., Urushihara, T., Kakuho, A., and Itoh, T. , “Development of a Technique for Quantifying In-Cylinder a/F Ratio Distribution Using LIF Image Processing,” JSAE Review 17:255-259, 1996.
- Hiltner, J. and Samimy, M. , “A Study of In-Cylinder Mixing in a Natural Gas Powered Engine by Planar Laser-Induced Fluorcence,” SAE Technical Paper 961102, 1996, https://doi.org/10.4271/961102.
- Hokimoto, S., Kuboyama, T., Moriyoshi, Y., Iida, M. et al. , “Analyses of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of Combustion and in-Cylinder Flow in a Port Injection Gasoline Engine Using PIV and PLIF Techniques,” SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-2213, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-2213.
- Shimizu, R., Matumoto, S., Furuno, S., Murayama, M. et al. , “Measurement of Air-Fuel Mixture Distribution in a Gasoline Engine Using LIEF Technique,” SAE Technical Paper 922356, 1992, https://doi.org/10.4271/922356.
- Anand, T.N.C. and Ravikrishna, R.V. , “Modelling of Mixture Preparation in a Small Engine with Port Fuel Injection,” Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, 2012, doi:doi.org/10.1504/PCFD.2012.049810.
- Fansler, T.D., French, D.T., and Drake, M.C. , “Fuel Distributions in a Firing Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging,” SAE Technical Paper 950110, 1995, https://doi.org/10.4271/950110.
- Schulz, V. and Sick, V. , “Tracer-LIF Diagnostics: Quantitative Measurement of Fuel Concentration, Temperature and Fuel/Air Ratio in Practical Combustion Systems,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 31(2005):75-121, 2005.
- Johansson, B., Neij, H., Alden, M., and Juhlin, G. , “Investigations of the Influence of Mixture Preparation on Cyclic Variation in a SI-Engine, Using Laser Induced Fluorescence,” SAE Technical Paper 950108, 1995, https://doi.org/10.4271/950108.
- Smith, B.D. and Srivastava, R. , Thermodynamic Data for Pure Compounds Part a, Hydrocarbons and Ketones (Elsevier, 1986).
- Lide, D.R. , CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 80th Edition (CRC Press, 1999).
- Yaws, C.L. , Handbook of Transport Property Data-Viscosity, Thermal Conductivity, and Diffusion Coefficients of Liquids and Gases (Houston: Gulf Publishing Company, 1995).
- Neij, H. , “Development of Laser-Induced Fluorescence for Pre-Combustion Diagnostics in Spark-Ignition Engines,” Ph.D. thesis, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, 1998.
- Hansen, D.A. and Lee, E.K.C. , “Radiative and Nonradiative Transitions in the First Excited Singlet State of Symmetrical Methyl-Substituted Acetones,” J. Chem. Phys. 62:183, 1975.