This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
An Empirical Aging Model for Lithium-Ion Battery and Validation Using Real-Life Driving Scenarios
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 14, 2020 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely used as the energy storage system in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) due to their high power and energy density and long cycle life compared to other chemistries. However, LIBs are sensitive to operating conditions, including temperature, current demand and surface pressure of the cell. One very well understood phenomenon of lithium-ion battery is the reduction in charge capacity over time due to cycling and storage commonly known as capacity fade. Considering the need for predicting the behavior of an aged cell and the need for estimating battery useful life for warranty purpose, it is crucial to predict the capacity fade with reasonable accuracy. To accommodate this need, a novel cell level empirical aging model is built based on storage tests and cycle tests. The storage test captures the calendar aging of the lithium-ion cell while the cycle test estimates the cycle aging of the cell. In the proposed model the calendar aging is represented as a function of time, storage temperature and state-of-charge. On the other hand, the cycle aging is represented as a function of energy throughput, cell temperature and charge/discharge rate. The cycle and calendar aging models are then combined to formulate an empirical cell-level aging model. The performance of the cell-level empirical aging model is validated by comparing with the aging test data for different driving scenarios and driver habits in different geographical locations of the US. The aging prediction from the empirical aging model shows very good agreement with the test data with a maximum normalized root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.6%.
CitationYang, Z., Mamun, A., Makam, S., and Okma, C., "An Empirical Aging Model for Lithium-Ion Battery and Validation Using Real-Life Driving Scenarios," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-0449, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-0449.
- McKerracher , C. , Izadi-Najafabadi , A. , Soulopoulos , N. , Doherty , D. , Frith , J. , Albanese , N. , Grant , A. , and Berry , I. https://about.bnef.com/electric-vehicle-outlook/
- Vetter , J. et al. Ageing Mechanisms in Lithium-Ion Batteries J. Power Sour. 147 1-2 269 281 Sept. 2005
- Wohlfahrt-Mehrens , M. , Vogler , C. , and Garche , J. Ageing Mechanisms of Lithium Cathode Materials J. Power Sour. 127 1-2 58 64 Mar. 2004
- Lin , X. , Park , J. , Liu , L. , Lee , Y. et al. A Comprehensive Capacity Fade Model and Analysis for Li-Ion Batteries J. Electrochem. Soc A1701 A1710 2013
- Arora , P. , White , R.E. , and Doyle , M. Capacity Fade Mechanisms and Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries J. Electrochem. Soc. 145 10 3647 3667 Oct. 1998
- Yang , X. et al. Modeling of Lithium Plating Induced Aging of Lithium-Ion Batteries: Transition from Linear to Nolinear Aging J. Power Sour. 360 360 28 40 Aug. 2017
- Ratnakumar , B. et al. Lithium Plating Behavior in Lithium Ion Cells Electrochemical Society Transactions 241 252 2010
- Zhang , S. Chemomechanical Modeling of Lithiation-Induced Failure in High-Volume-Change Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries npj Computational Materials 7 3 Feb. 2017
- Cordoba-Arenas , A. , Onori , S. , Guezennec , Y. , and Rizzoni , G. Capacity and Power Fade Cycle-Life Model for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Lithium-Ion Battery Cells Containing Blended Spinel and Layered-Oxide Positive Electrodes J. Power Sour 278 473 483 Mar. 2015
- Lawder , M.T. , Northrop , P.W.C. , and Subramanian , V.R. Model-Based SEI Layer Growth and Capacity Fade Analysis for EV and PHEV Batteries and Drive Cycles J. Electrochem. Soc. 161 14 A2099 A2108 Oct. 2014
- Ramadass , P. , Haran , B. , Gomadam , P.M. , White , R. , and Popov , B.N. Development of First Principles Capacity Fade Model for Li-Ion Cells J. Electrochem. Soc. 151 2 A196 A203 Jan. 2014
- Ramadass , P. , Haran , B. , White , R. , and Popov , B.N. Mathematical Modeling of the Capacity Fade of Li-Ion Cells J. Power Sour. 123 2 230 240 Sept. 2003
- Baghdadi , I. , Briat , O. , Deletage , J.Y. , Gyan , P. , and Vinassa , J.M. Lithium Battery Aging Model Based on Dakin's Degradation Approach J. of Power Sour. 325 1 273 285 Sept. 2016
- Bloom , I. , Cole , B.W. , Sohn , J.J. , Jones , S.A. et al. An Accelerated Calendar and Cycle Life Study of Li-Ion Cells J. of Power Sour. 101 2 238 247 Oct. 2001
- Wang , J. , Liu , P. , Hicks-Garner , J. , Sherman , E. et al. Cycle-Life Model for Graphite-LiFePO4 Cells J. Power Sour. 196 8 3942 3948 Apr. 2011
- Petit , M. , Prada , E. , and Sauvant-Moynot , V. Development of an Empirical Aging Model for Li-Ion Batteries and Application to Assess the Impact of Vehicle-to-Grid Strategies on Battery Lifetime Applied Energy 172 398 407 2016
- Hu , X. , Perez , H.E. , and Moura , S.J. Battery Charge Control with an Electro-Thermal-Aging Coupling ASME 2015 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference Columbus, OH 2016