This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
RDE-Compliant PEMS Testing of a Gasoline Euro 6d-TEMP Passenger Car at Two Ambient Temperatures with a Focus on the Cold Start Effect
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
To be published on April 14, 2020 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
European Union RDE (real driving emissions) legislation requires that new vehicles be subjected to emissions tests on public roads. Performing emissions testing outside a laboratory setting immediately raises the question of the impact of ambient conditions - especially temperature - on the results. In the spirit of RDE legislation, a wide range of ambient temperatures are permissible, with mathematical moderation (correction) of the results only permissible for ambient temperatures <0°C and >+30°C. Within the standard range of temperatures (0°C to +30°C), no correction for temperature is applied to emissions results and the applicable emissions limits have to be met. Given the well-known link between the thermal state of an engine and its emissions following cold start, ambient temperature can be of great importance in determining whether a vehicle meets emissions requirements during an RDE test. This paper reports the results of full RDE-compliant on-road emissions tests performed on a Euro 6d-TEMP passenger car with a direct injection spark ignition engine and a gasoline particle filter. Testing was performed at two temperatures, both lying within the “standard” temperature range for RDE testing: +25°C and +8°C. Regulated gaseous emissions, particle number and CO2/fuel consumption results are presented and discussed. Overall, as expected, emissions following cold start were significantly higher at the lower test temperature. Nevertheless, the long distance covered during RDE tests (~70-100 km) and their urban phases (>16 km, often ~25 km) weakens the impact of this effect. Some simple mathematical analyses of the results from various portions of the trip are presented.
CitationBielaczyc, P., Merkisz, J., Pielecha, J., and Woodburn, J., "RDE-Compliant PEMS Testing of a Gasoline Euro 6d-TEMP Passenger Car at Two Ambient Temperatures with a Focus on the Cold Start Effect," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-0379, 2020.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 5]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 6]|
- Merkisz, J., Bielaczyc, P., Pielecha, J., and Woodburn, J. , “RDE Testing of Passenger Cars: The Effect of the Cold Start on the Emissions Results,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0747, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0747.
- Pajdowski, P., Woodburn, J., Bielaczyc, P., and Puchalka, B. , “Development of RDE Test Methodology in Light of Euro 6d Emissions Limits,” Combustion Engines 178(3):274-282, 2019, https://doi.org/10.19206/CE-2019-348.
- Fontaras, G., Zacharof, N.G., and Ciuffo, B. , “Fuel Consumption and CO2 Emissions from Passenger Cars in Europe - Laboratory Versus Real-World Emissions,” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 60:97-131, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2016.12.004.
- Dilara, P. , “The Development of Real Driving Emissions Regulation in the EU,” 2nd Sino-EU Workshop on New Emissions Standards for Motor Vehicles, June 19-20, 2018, Brussels, Belgium.
- Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/1151 of 1 June 2017, http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2017/1151/oj.
- Roberts, A., Brooks, R., and Shipway, P. , “Internal Combustion Engine Cold-Start Efficiency: A Review of the Problem, Causes and Potential Solutions,” Energy Conversion and Management 82:327-350, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.03.002.
- Bielaczyc, P., Szczotka, A., and Woodburn, J. , “The Effect of a Low Ambient Temperature on the Cold-Start Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Passenger Cars,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering 225(9), 2011, https://doi.org/10.1177/0954407011406613.
- Yusuf, A. and Inambao, F. , “Effect of Cold Start Emissions from Gasoline-Fueled Engines of Light-Duty Vehicles at Low and High Ambient Temperatures: Recent Trends,” Case Studies in Thermal Engineering 2019:100417, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csite.2019.100417.
- Weiss, M., Paffumi, E., Clairotte, M., Drossinos, I., Vlachos, T., Bonnel, P. and Giechaskiel, B. , “Including Cold-Start Emissions in the Real-Driving Emissions (RDE) Test Procedure: An Assessment of Cold-Start Frequencies and Emission Effects,” JRC report EUR 28472 EN, https://doi.org/10.2760/70237.
- Andrews, G. , “Real World Vehicle Emissions in Low Speed Congested Traffic,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Exhaust Emissions Symposium, May 19-20, 2016, Bielsko-Biala, Poland, ISBN 9788393138395.
- Pathak, S.K., Sood, V., Singh, Y., and Channiwala, S.A. , “Real World Vehicle Emissions: Their Correlation with Driving Parameters,” Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 44:157-176, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2016.02.001.
- Andrews, G. , “RDE in Congested Traffic with Cold Start,” in 3rd International Conference on Real Driving Emissions 2015, October 27-29, 2015, Berlin, Germany. Available online: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/109794/1/RDE%20Cold%20Start%20Presentation%20Berlin%202%20open.pdf, accessed October 1, 2018.
- Khalfan, A., Andrews, G., and Li, H. , “Real World Driving: Emissions in Highly Congested Traffic,” SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-2388, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-2388.
- Vinnot, E. and Jeanneret, B. , “Fuel Consumption vs Pollutant Emission Trade-Off for Hybrid Electric Vehicle: An Application of the Pontryagin's Minimum Principle,” in Vehicle Power and Propulsion (VPPC), IEEE Conference Proceedings, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1109/VPPC.2014.7007075.
- Gao, J., Tian, G., Sorniotti, A., Karci, A., and Di Palo, R. , “Review of Thermal Management of Catalytic Converters to Decrease Engine Emissions during Cold Start and Warm up,” Applied Thermal Engineering 147, 2019:177-187, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2018.10.03.
- Krumm, J. , “How People Use their Vehicles: Statistics from the 2009 National Household Travel Survey,” SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0489, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-0489.
- Pasaoglu, G., Fiorello, D., Martino, A., Scarcella, G., Alemanno, A., Zubaryeva, A., and Thiel, C. , “Driving and Parking Patterns of European Car Drivers - A Mobility Survey,” JRC report JRC77079, 2012, ISBN: 978-92-79-27739-9, https://doi.org/10.2790/70746.
- European Vehicle Market Statistics , 2018/2019, https://theicct.org/publications/european-vehicle-market-statistics-20182019, accessed October 1, 2019.
- Suarez-Bertoa, R., Valverde, V., Clairotte, M., Pavlovic, J. et al. , “On-Road Emissions of Passenger Cars beyond the Boundary Conditions of the Real-Driving Emissions Test,” Environmental Research 176, September 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.108572.
- Dimaratos, A., Toumasatos, Z., Doulgeris, S., Triantafyllopoulos, G. et al. , “Assessment of CO2 and NOx Emissions of One Diesel and One Bi-Fuel Gasoline/CNG Euro 6 Vehicles during Real-World Driving and Laboratory Testing,” Front. Mech. Eng. 3, December 2019, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmech.2019.00062.
- McCaffery, C., Zhu, H., Li, C., Durbin, T. et al. , “On-Road Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from GDI Vehicles with and without Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPFs) Using Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS),” Science of the Total Environment 710(2020):136366, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.136366.
- Kompil, M. et al. , “European Cities: Territorial Analysis of Characteristics and Trends,” JRC report EUR 27709 EN, 2015, https://doi.org/10.2788/737963.