This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Development of a Method to Measure Soft Particles from Diesel Type Fuels
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
To be published on April 14, 2020 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Renewable fuels have an important role to create sustainable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on biodiesel, which is produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Today biodiesel is mostly used as a drop-in fuel, mixed into conventional diesel fuels to reduce their environmental impact. Low quality drop-in fuel can lead to deposits throughout the fuel systems of heavy duty vehicles. In a previous study fuel filters from the field were collected and analyzed with the objective to determine the main components responsible for fuel filter plugging. The identified compounds were constituents of soft particles. In the current study, the focus was on metal carboxylates since these have been found to be one of the components of the soft particles and associated with other engine malfunctions as well. Hence the measurement of metal carboxylates in the fuel is important for future studies regarding the fuel’s effect on engines. The first aim of this study was to create synthetic soft particles from biodiesel. Accelerated aging of fuels with different contaminations such as engine oil and calcium oxide were used to create the synthetic soft particles. The precipitates were collected and analyzed with different techniques such as FTIR and GC-MS, to identify the main components which were then compared with the results of the previous study. Following this, specific attention was given to calcium methyl azelate as it was shown to be found in field fuel filters. A method using GC-MS was developed to be able to estimate the amount of soft particles by measuring calcium methyl azelate. The specified method proved to be adequate for future studies to evaluate the filtration efficiency of different filter materials against soft particles.
CitationCsontos, B., Swarga, S., Bernemyr, H., Pach, M. et al., "Development of a Method to Measure Soft Particles from Diesel Type Fuels," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-0344, 2020.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
- Craig, G. and Bruce, B. , “Global Truck Study 2016 the Truck Industry in Transition, Deloitte,” 2016.
- Hoekman, S.K., Broch, A., Robbins, C., Ceniceros, E., and Natarajan, M. , “Review of Biodiesel Composition, Properties, and Specifications,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 16(1):143-169, 2012, doi:10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.143.
- Obed, M.A., Rizalman, M., and Che Ku, M.F. , “Review of the Effects of Additives on Biodiesel Properties, Performance, and Emission Features,” J. Renew. Sustain. Energy 5(012701), 2013, doi:10.1063/1.4792846.
- Huo, H., Wang, M., Bloyd, C., and Putsche, V. , “Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Soybean-Derived Biodiesel and Renewable Fuels,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(3):750-756, 2009, doi:10.1021/es8011436.
- Jolly, L., Kitano, K., Sakata, I., Wenzel, S., and Bunting, W. , “A Study of Mixed-FAME and Trace Component Effects on the Filter Blocking Propensity of FAME and FAME Blends,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-2116, 2010, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2010-01-2116.
- Barker, J., Richard, P., Snape, C., and Meredith, W. , “Diesel Injector Deposits - An Issue That Has Evolved with Engine Technology,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-1923, 2011, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-01-1923.
- Bernemyr, H., Csontos, B., Hittig, H., and Forsberg, O. , “Study of Nozzle Fouling: Deposit Build-Up and Removal,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-2231, 2019, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-2231.
- Knothe, G. , “Some Aspects of Biodiesel Oxidative Stability ☆,” Fuel Process. Technol. 88(7):669-677, 2007, doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2007.01.005.
- Karavalakis, G., Stournas, S., and Karonis, D. , “Evaluation of the Oxidation Stability of Diesel/Biodiesel Blends,” Fuel 89(9):2483-2489, 2010, doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2010.03.041.
- Herbinet, O., Pitz, W.J., and Westbrook, C.K. , “Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanism for the Oxidation of Biodiesel Fuels Blend Surrogate,” Combust. Flame 157(5):893-908, 2010, doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2009.10.013.
- Fersner, A.S. and Galante-Fox, J.M. , “Biodiesel Feedstock and Contaminant Contributions to Diesel Fuel Filter Blocking,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 7(3):783-791, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-2723.
- Risberg, P.A., Alfredsson, S., and Ab, S.C.V. , “The Effect of Zinc and Other Metal Carboxylates on Nozzle Fouling,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0837, 2016, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-01-0837.
- Csontos, B., Bernemyr, H., Erlandsson, A.C., Forsberg, O. et al. , “Characterization of Deposits Collected from Plugged Fuel Filters,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-24-0140, 2019, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-24-0140.
- Monteiro, M.R., Ambrozin, R.P.A., Liao, M.L., and Ferreira, G.A. , “Critical Review on Analytical Methods for Biodiesel Characterization,” Talanta 77:593-605, 2008, doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2008.07.001.
- Knothe, G. , “Analyzing Biodiesel: Standards and Other Methods,” J Amer Oil Chem Soc 83(10):823-833, 2006, doi:10.1007/s11746-006-5033-y.
- Knothe, G. , “Analytical Methods for Biodiesel,” The Biodiesel Handbook, 2010, 97-136, ISBN 9781893997622.
- Mittelbach, M. , “Diesel Fuel Derived from Vegetable Oils, V : Gas Chromatographic Determination of Free Glycerol in Transesterified Vegetable Oils,” Chromatographia 37(11-12):623-626, 1993, doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02274113.
- Holcapek, M., Jandera, P., Fischer, J., and Prokes, B., “Analytical Monitoring of the Production of Biodiesel by High- Performance Liquid Chromatography with Various Detection Methods,” Jourmal Chromatography A 858:13-31, 1999, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(99)00790-6.
- Plank, C. and Lorbeer, E. , “On-Line Liquid Chromatography-Gas Chromatography for the Analysis of Free and Esterified Sterols in Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters Used as Diesel Fuel Substitutes,” Journal Chromatography A 683:95-104, 1994, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(94)89106-0.
- Schwab, S.D., Bennett, J.J., Dell, S.J., Galante-Fox, J.M. et al. , “Internal Injector Deposits in High-Pressure Common Rail Diesel Engines,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 3(2):865-878, 2010, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2010-01-2242.
- Liati, A., Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, P., Müller Gubler, E., Schreiber, D., and Aguirre, M. , “Investigation of Diesel Ash Particulate Matter: A Scanning Electron Microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope Study,” Atmos. Environ. 49:391-402, 2012, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.10.035.
- Csontos, B., Alim, R., Bernemyr, H., Hittig, H., and Pach, M. , “Contaminants Affecting the Formation of Soft Particles in Bio-Based Diesel Fuels during Degradation,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0016, 2019, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-0016.
- Almena, M.D.C., Esperilla, O.L., Manzanero, F.M., Duarte, M. et al. , “Internal Diesel Injector Deposits : Sodium Carboxylates of C12 Succinic Acids and C16 and C18 Fatty Acids Failing Injectors from the Field,” SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1689, 2012, doi:https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-1689.
- Hay, M.B. and Myneni, S.C.B. , “Structural Environments of Carboxyl Groups in Natural Organic Molecules from Terrestrial Systems. Part 2: 2D NMR Spectroscopy,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 71(14):3533-3544, 2007, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2007.03.039.
- Knothe, G. and Steidley, K.R. , “The Effect of Metals and Metal Oxides on Biodiesel Oxidative Stability from Promotion to Inhibition,” Fuel Process. Technol. 177(April):75-80, 2018, doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2018.04.009.
- Osawa, M., Ebinuma, Y., Sasaki, S., Takashiba, T. et al. , “Influence of Base Diesel Fuel upon Biodiesel Sludge Formation Tendency,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 2(1):127-138, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-0482.
- Ma, F. and Hanna, M.A. , “Biodiesel Production: A Review,” Bioresour. Technol. 70(1):1-15, 1999, doi:10.1016/s0960-8524(99)00025-5.