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Microscopic and Macroscopic Spray Characteristics of Gasohols in Ambient Conditions Using a Port Fuel Injection System
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
To be published on April 14, 2020 by SAE International in United States
Fossil fuels are non-renewable sources of energy and will exhaust in foreseeable future. Harmful emissions are generated due to combustion of fossil fuels in the internal combustion (IC) engines, particularly the emissions of CO, HC, and particulate matter (PM). It is necessary to explore technical solutions for emission norms compliance in different segments of the transport sector. Methanol has highest potential for widespread use amongst all primary alcohols in the all the segments of the transport sector. Methanol is a clean-burning, high octane fuel, primarily made from natural gas, high ash coal, and biomass. Addition of methanol to gasoline can significantly reduce engine-out emissions. Gasoline-methanol blends (Gasohols) could be used to reduce dependence of transport sector on fossil fuels. Spay characteristics of the fuel affects engine performance and emissions characteristics to a great extent. The purpose of this experimental study is therefore to investigate the macroscopic and microscopic spray characteristics of different Gasohols such as M15 (15% v/v Methanol and 85% v/v Gasoline), M85 (85% v/v Methanol and 15% v/v Gasoline), M100 (100 % v/v Methanol), and G100 (100 % v/v Gasoline). The spray characteristics were experimentally investigated using a solenoid injector of a port fuel injected 500 cc motorcycle engine. The injector was installed in a Constant Volume Spray Chamber (CVSC), which had glass windows for optical access for experimental investigations and the chamber pressure was maintained at 1 bar. The fuel injection pressure was maintained at 3.5 bar. Macroscopic spray characteristics included determination of Spray penetration and Spray cone Angle for all test fuels under experimental conditions. A high-speed CCD camera, image processing software and a white light source were used to capture the spray evolution images with time after the start of injection, in order to compare its comparative evolution and macroscopic spray characterization vis-à-vis baseline gasoline. Microscopic spray characteristics included experimental determination of sauter mean diameter (SMD), droplet size distribution, and droplet velocity distributions in the three orthogonal directions (Vx, Vy, and Vz). Phase Doppler Interferometry (PDI) technique was used to assess the spray droplet size and velocity distributions of the test fuels under the experimental conditions.