This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Anisotropic Material Behavior and Design Optimization of 3D Printed Structures
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 14, 2020 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Traditional manufacturing processes such as injection or compression molding are often enclosed and pressurized systems that produce homogenous products. In contrast, 3D printing is exposed to the environment at ambient (or reduced) temperature and atmospheric pressure. Furthermore, the printing process itself is mostly “layered manufacturing”, i.e., it forms a three-dimensional part by laying down successive layers of materials. Those characteristics inevitably lead to an inconsistent microstructure of 3D printed products and thus cause anisotropic mechanical properties. In this paper, the anisotropic behaviors of 3D printed parts were investigated by using both laboratory coupon specimens (bending specimens) and complex engineering structures (A-pillar). Results show that the orientation of the infills of 3D printed parts can significantly influence their mechanical properties. Parts with 0-degree filament orientation are seen to have the most favorable responses, including Young’s modulus, maximum strength, failure strain, and toughness. The findings also suggest that the 3D printed products could be theoretically “designed” or “tailored” by adjusting the infill angles to achieve optimal performance. The 3D printed A-pillar structure has been designed by utilizing the multilayered composite theory through a finite element method. With the mid-plane model, the layers in a 3D printed product can be properly designed and optimized based on given loading conditions. The designs have been evaluated through both computational and physical tests and consistent results have been obtained.
CitationGarcia, J., Harper, R., Bradley, C., Schmidt, J. et al., "Anisotropic Material Behavior and Design Optimization of 3D Printed Structures," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-0228, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-0228.
- Syed, F. , “Future of Manufacturing - Additive Manufacturing,” International Journal of Modern Engineering Research 5(12):1-7, 2015.
- Kamble, P.S., Khoje, S.A., and Lele, A. , “Recent Developments in 3D Printing Technologies: Review,” in Second International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICICCS), 2018, doi:10.1109/iccons.2018.8662981.
- Baily, M.N. and Boworth, B.P. , “US Manufacturing: Understanding Its Past and Its Potential Future,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 28(1):3-26, 2014.
- Huang, S., Liu, P., Mokasdar, A., and Hou, L. , “Additive Manufacturing and Its Societal Impact: A 667 Literature Review,” International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 67:668, 2013.
- Thomas, C., Williams, C., Ivanova, O. and Garrett, B. , “Could 3D Printing Change the World?,” in Technologies, Potential, and Implications of Additive Manufacturing, 2011.
- Thierry, R. and Striukova, L. , “Adaptivity and Rapid Prototyping: How 3D Printing Is Changing Business Model Innovation,” Van den Berg, Bibi, van der Hof, Simone, and Kosta, Eleni (eds.) 3D Printing: Legal, Philosophical and Economic Dimensions (The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2016).
- Jorge, V.S. and Rezende, R.A. , “Additive Manufacturing and Its Future Impact in Logistics,” IFAC Proceedings Volumes 46(24):277-282, 2013.
- Gao, W., Zhang, Y., Ramanujana, D., Ramania, K. et al. , “The Status, Challenges, and Future of Additive Manufacturing in Engineering,” Computer-Aided Design 69:65-89, 2015.
- Ahn, S.H., Montero, M., Odell, D., Roundy, S., and Wright, P.K. , “Anisotropic Material Properties of Fused Deposition Modeling ABS,” Rapid Prototyping Journal 8(4):248-257, 2002.
- Torrado, A.R. and Roberson, D.A. , “Failure Analysis and Anisotropy Evaluation of 3D-Printed Tensile Test Specimens of Different Geometries and Print Raster Patterns,” Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention 16(1):154-164, 2016.
- Said, O.S.E., Foyos, J., Noorani, R., Mandelson, M. et al. , “Effect of Layer Orientation on Mechanical Properties of Rapid Prototyped Samples,” Materials and Manufacturing Processes 15(1):107-122, 2000.
- Baumann, F., Bugdayci, H., Grunert, J., Keller, F., and Roller, D. , “Influence of Slicing Tools on Quality of 3D Printed Parts,” Computer-Aided Design and Applications 13(1):14-31, 2016, doi:10.1080/16864360.2015.1059184.
- Callister, W.D. Jr. , Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1991).
- Martinez, J., Diéguez, J.L., Ares, J.E., Pereira, A., and Pérez, J.A. , “Modelization and Structural Analysis of FDM Parts,” in AIP Conference Proceedings, 2012.
- Lechowicz, P., Koszalka, L., Pozniak-Koszalka, I., and Kasprzak, A. , “Path Optimization in 3D Printer: Algorithms and Experimentation System,” The 4th International Symposium on Computational and Business Intelligence (ISCBI), IEEE, 137-142, 2016.
- Sukindar, N., Baharudin, B.T., Jaafer, C., and Ismail, M. , “Slicer Method Comparison Using Open-source 3D Printer,” IOP Conference Series 114(1), 2018.
- Daniel, I.M. and Ishai, O. , Engineering Mechanics of Composite Materials (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006).
- Agarwal, B.D., Broutman, L.J., and Chandrashekhara, K. , Analysis and Performance of Fiber Composites (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2006).
- Li, L., Sun, Q., Bellehumeur, C., and Gu, P. , “Composite Modeling and Analysis for Fabrication of FDM Prototypes with Locally Controlled Properties,” Journal of Manufacturing Processes 4(2), 2002.
- Vaidya, S., Velamakuri, N., Agarwal, P., Pilla, S., and Schmueser, D. , “Design and Development of a Composite A-Pillar to Reduce Obstruction Angle in Passenger Cars,” SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems 10(1):150-156, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-0501.