This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
A Lumped-Parameter Thermal Model for System Level Simulations of Hybrid Vehicles
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 14, 2020 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
A lumped-parameter thermal network model, based on the analogy between heat transfer and electric current flow, is presented for hybrid powertrain cooling systems. In order to optimally select the powertrain components that are commercially viable and meet performance, emission, fuel economy and life targets, it is necessary to consider the influence of cooling architecture. Especially in electric and hybrid vehicles, temperature monitoring is important to increase power and torque utilization while preventing thermal damages. Detailed thermal models such as FEA and CFD are considered for component level assessments as they can locate thermal hotspots and identify possible design changes needed. However, for the system level analysis, the detailed numerical models are not suitable due to the requirement of high computation effort. Gray-box modelling technique which is a combination of data driven and physics-based models can be employed to estimate heat rejection from each component and average component temperatures for cooling system design. After preparing the physics based thermal network model, the coefficients are derived based on the temperature readings from test/simulation. Co-simulation of the thermal model with powertrain components can achieve the synergistic optimal solution.
In this paper, a mathematical thermal model of a range extender vehicle cooling system with multiple cooling loops for engine, generator, traction motor, and battery is presented. Thermal inertia of the powertrain components and convective heat transfer to the coolant are defined using equivalent capacitance and resistances, respectively. The energy equations are solved in state space form to calculate component temperatures. This approach reduces simulation setup time and computational effort, approximately 100 times, compared to commercially available 1D simulation tools with an estimated temperature difference of less than 2%. The presented modelling approach is ideal for system level entitlement studies.
CitationCaicedo Parra, D., Ramakrishnan, K., Farrell, L., Narula, M. et al., "A Lumped-Parameter Thermal Model for System Level Simulations of Hybrid Vehicles," SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-0150, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-0150.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
- Anderhofstadt, B. , “Factors Affecting the Purchasing Decision and Operation of Alternative Fuel-Powered Heavy-Duty Trucks in Germany-a Delphi Study,” Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 87-107, 2019, doi:10.1016/j.trd.2019.06.003.
- Ramakrishnan, K., Mastinu, G., and Gobbi, M. , “Multidisciplinary Design of Electric Vehicles Based on Hierarchical Multi-Objective Optimization,” ASME. J. Mech. Des 141(9):091404, September 2019, https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4043840.
- Silvaş, E., Hofman, T., and Steinbuch, M. , “Review of Optimal Design Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” IFAC Proceedings Volumes 45(30):57-64, 2012, doi:10.3182/20121023-3-FR-4025.00054.
- Park, S. , “A Comprehensive Thermal Management System Model for Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” Ph.D. thesis, The University of Michigan, 2011.
- Nielsen, H. and Madsen, H. , “Modelling the Heat Consumption in District Heating Systems Using a Grey-Box Approach,” Energy and Buildings 38:63-71, 2006, doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2005.05.002.
- Mejuto, C. , “Improved Lumped Parameter Thermal Modelling of Synchronous Generators,” Ph,D. thesis, The University of Edinburgh, 2010.
- Grunditz, E. , “Design and Assessment of Battery Electric Vehicle Powertrain, with Respect to Performance, Energy Consumption and Electric Motor Thermal Capability,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Energy and Environment Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, 2016.
- Filion, R. , “Thermal Network Model Development for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle Battery Pack with Experimental Verification Through Dynamic Environmental Exposure,” Masters thesis, The Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2017.
- Cengel, Y.A. , Introduction to Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997), ISBN:978-0070114999.
- Xu, B., Li, P., and Chan, C. , “Extending the Validity of Lumped Capacitance Method for Large Biot Number in Thermal Storage Application,” Solar Energy 1709-1724, 2012, doi:10.1016/j.solener.2012.03.016.
- Lo, Y., Hu, Y.C., and Chang, P.Z. , “Parameter Estimation of the Thermal Network Model of a Machine Tool Spindle by Self-Made Bluetooth Temperature Sensor Module” Sensors, 2018, 10.3390/s18020656.
- Tao, X. , “Design, Modeling and Control of a Thermal Management System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering Clemson University, 2016.
- Radecki, P., and Hencey, B. , “Online Building Thermal Parameter Estimation Via Unscented Kalman Filtering,” in 2012 American Control Conference (ACC), Montreal, QC, 2012, 3056-3062, doi:10.1109/ACC.2012.6315699.
- Ogunsola, O. and Li, S. , “Application of a Simplified Thermal Network Model for Real-Time Thermal Load Estimation,” Energy and Buildings 309-318, 2015, doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2015.03.044.
- Mellor, P., Roberts, D., and Turner, D. , “Lumped Parameter Thermal Model for Electrical Machines of Tefc Design,” IEEE Proceedings B (Electric Power Applications) 138(5), 1991.
- Nespoli, L., Medici, V., and Rudel, R. , “Grey-Box System Identification of Building Thermal Dynamics Using Only Smart Meter and Air Temperature Data,” in 14th International Conference of the International Building Performance Simulation Association, India, December 7-9, 2015.
- Ramakrishnan, K., Romanazzi, P., Zarko, D., Mastinu, G. et al. , “Improved Analytical Model of an Outer Rotor Surface Permanent Magnet Machine for Efficiency Calculation with Thermal Effect,” SAE Int. J. Alt. Power. 6(1):34-46, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-0185.
- Incropera, F.P. and DeWitt, D.P. , Introduction to Heat Transfer (New York: J. Wiley, 1990).