This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Knock and Pre-Ignition Limits on Utilization of Ethanol in Octane-on-Demand Concept
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 9, 2019 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Octane-on-Demand (OoD) is a promising technology for reducing greenhouse emissions from automobiles. The concept utilizes a low-octane fuel for low and mid load operating conditions, and a high-octane additive is added at high load operating conditions. Researchers have focused on the minimum ethanol content required for operating at high load conditions when the low-octane fuel becomes knock limited. However, it is also widely known that ethanol has a high tendency to pre-ignite, which has been linked with its high laminar flame speed and surface ignition tendency. Moreover, ethanol has a lower stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, requiring a larger injected fuel mass per cycle. A larger fuel mass increases the potential for oil dilution by the liquid fuel, creating precursors for pre-ignition. Hence, the limits on ethanol addition owing to pre-ignition also need consideration before the technology can be implemented. In this regard, experiments were performed using light naphtha (RON 68) and ethanol in direct and port-fuel injection configuration, respectively. The engine load was parametrically swept by simultaneously increasing the intake air and fuel quantity until the pre-ignition limited load was reached. Three different engine speeds, namely 1500, 2000 and 2500 rpm were tested. In general, it can be said that OoD concept helps suppress pre-ignition intrinsically by splitting the amount of direct-injected fuel in the engine. Light naphtha was found to be the limiting fuel, more often than ethanol, due to the larger fuel fraction injected via the direct injector. However, at large ethanol fractions, pre-ignition re-emerged, albeit with low knock intensity.
CitationSingh, E., Morganti, K., and Dibble, R., "Knock and Pre-Ignition Limits on Utilization of Ethanol in Octane-on-Demand Concept," SAE Technical Paper 2019-24-0108, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-24-0108.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
- Whittemore, A.S. and Korn, E.L. , “Asthma and Air Pollution in the Los Angeles Area,” American Journal of Public Health 70(7):687-696, 1980.
- Stern, A.C. and Professor, E. , “History of Air Pollution Legislation in the United States,” Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 32(1):44-61, 1982.
- Splitter, D., Pawlowski, A., and Wagner, R. , “A Historical Analysis of the Co-Evolution of Gasoline Octane Number and Spark-Ignition Engines,” Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering 1:16, 2016.
- Thomas, C.S. , “Transportation Options in a Carbon-Constrained World: Hybrids, Plug-in Hybrids, Biofuels, Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles, and Battery Electric Vehicles,” International journal of hydrogen energy 34(23):9279-9296, 2009.
- Heywood, J.B. , Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988).
- Singh, E., Waqas, M., Johansson, B., and Sarathy, M. , “Simulating HCCI Blending Octane Number of Primary Reference Fuel with Ethanol,” SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-0734 , 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0734.
- Chang, J., Viollet, Y., Alzubail, A., Abdul-Manan, A.F.N., and Al Arfaj, A. , “Octane-on-Demand as an Enabler for Highly Efficient Spark Ignition Engines and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Improvement,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1264 , 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1264.
- Morganti, K., Al-Abdullah, M., and Zubail, A. , “Fuel Economy and CO2 Emissions Benefits of Octane-on-Demand Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engines,” Carbon 1:2.18-2.24, 2015.
- Morganti, K. et al. , “Improving the Efficiency of Conventional Spark-Ignition Engines Using Octane-on-Demand Combustion-Part II: Vehicle Studies and Life Cycle Assessment,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-0683 , 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0683.
- Viollet, Y., Abdullah, M., Alhajhouje, A., and Chang, J. , “Characterization of High Efficiency Octane-on-Demand Fuels Requirement in a Modern Spark Ignition Engine with Dual Injection System,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1265 , 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1265.
- Bourhis, G., Solari, J.-P., Morel, V., and Dauphin, R. , “Using Ethanol’s Double Octane Boosting Effect with Low RON Naphtha-Based Fuel for an Octane on Demand SI Engine,” SAE International Journal of Engines 9:1460-1474, 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-0666.
- Morganti, K., Almansour, M., Khan, A., Kalghatgi, G., and Przesmitzki, S. , “Leveraging the Benefits of Ethanol in Advanced Engine-Fuel Systems,” Energy Conversion and Management 157:480-497, 2018.
- Morganti, K., Viollet, Y., Head, R., Kalghatgi, G. et al. , “Maximizing the Benefits of High Octane Fuels in Spark-Ignition Engines,” Fuel 207:470-487, 2017.
- Morganti, K. et al. , “Synergistic Engine-Fuel Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles: Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions,” Applied Energy 208:1538-1561, 2017.
- Kasseris, E., Heywood, J.B., Seitz, S., and Kolakaluri, R. , “Real World Performance of an Onboard Gasoline/Ethanol Separation System to Enable Knock Suppression Using an Octane-on-Demand Fuel System,” SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0879 , 2018, doi:10.4271/2018-01-0879.
- Mizuno, K. et al. , “Study of Alcohol-Gasoline Separation Technology to Suppress Knock and Enable Higher Efficiency Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-0882 , 2018, doi:10.4271/2018-01-0882.
- Khan, A., Morganti, K., Sendi, M., Almansour, M., and Hamad, E. , “Investigation of Onboard Fuel Separation for Passenger Vehicles,” Energy 169:1079-1089, 2019.
- Nozawa, R., Morita, Y., and Shimizu, M. , “Effects of Engine Downsizing on Friction Losses and Fuel Economy,” Tribology International 27(1):31-37, 1994.
- Fraser, N., Blaxill, H., Lumsden, G., and Bassett, M. , “Challenges for Increased Efficiency through Gasoline Engine Downsizing,” SAE International Journal of Engines 2:991-1008, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-1053.
- Singh, E., Morganti, K., and Dibble, R.W. , “Dual-Fuel Operation of Gasoline and Natural gas in a Turbocharged Engine,” Fuel, 2018.
- Singh, E. and Dibble, R. , “Effectiveness of Fuel Enrichment on Knock Suppression in a Gasoline Spark-Ignited Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-1665 , 2018, doi:10.4271/2018-01-1665.
- Dahnz, C., Han, K.-M., Spicher, U., Magar, M. et al. , “Investigations on Pre-Ignition in Highly Supercharged SI Engines,” SAE Int. J. Engines 3(1):214-224, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-0355.
- Dahnz, C. and Spicher, U. , “Irregular Combustion in Supercharged Spark Ignition Engines - Pre-Ignition and Other Phenomena,” International Journal of Engine Research, 2010.
- Palaveev, S., Magar, M., Kubach, H., Schiessl, R. et al. , “Premature Flame Initiation in a Turbocharged DISI Engine-Numerical and Experimental Investigations,” SAE International Journal of Engines 6(1):54-66, 2013.
- Spicher, U., Gohl, M., Magar, M., and Hadler, J. , “The Role of Engine Oil in Low-Speed Pre-Ignition,” MTZ Worldwide 77(1):60-63, 2016.
- Kuboyama, T., Moriyoshi, Y., and Morikawa, K. , “Visualization and Analysis of LSPI Mechanism Caused by Oil Droplet, Particle and Deposit in Highly Boosted SI Combustion in Low Speed Range,” SAE International Journal of Engines 8:529-537, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0761.
- Morikawa, K., Moriyoshi, Y., Kuboyama, T., Imai, Y. et al. , “Investigation and Improvement of LSPI Phenomena and Study of Combustion Strategy in Highly Boosted SI Combustion in Low Speed Range,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0756 , 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0756.
- Moriyoshi, Y. et al. , “A Study of Low Speed Preignition Mechanism in Highly Boosted SI Gasoline Engines,” SAE International Journal of Engines 9:98-106, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1865.
- Lauer, T., Heiss, M., Bobicic, N., Holly, W., and Pritze, S. , “A Comprehensive Simulation Approach to Irregular Combustion,” SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1214 , 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1214.
- Lauer, T., Heiss, M., Bobicic, N., and Pritze, S. , “Model Approach for Pre-Ignition Mechanisms,” MTZ Worldwide 75(1):44-49, 2014.
- Singh, E. and Dibble, R. , “Mechanism Triggering Pre-Ignition in Turbo-Charged Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0255 , 2019, doi:10.4271/2019-01-0255.
- Singh, E., Ali, M.J.M., Ichim, A., Morganti, K., and Dibble, R. , “Effect of Mixture Formation and Injection Strategies on Stochastic Pre-Ignition,” SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-1678 , 2018, doi:10.4271/2018-01-1678.
- Kalghatgi, G. , Fuel/Engine Interactions (SAE International, 2013).
- Kalghatgi, G.T. and Bradley, D. , “Pre-Ignition and ‘Super-Knock’ in Turbo-Charged Spark-Ignition Engines,” International Journal of Engine Research, 2011.
- Zeldovich, I., Barenblatt, G.I., Librovich, V., and Makhviladze, G. , “Mathematical Theory of Combustion and Explosions,” 1985.
- Sung, C.-J. and Law, C.K. , “Fundamental Combustion Properties of H2/CO Mixtures: Ignition and Flame Propagation at Elevated Pressures,” Combustion Science and Technology 180(6):1097-1116, 2008.
- Haenel P., Kleeberg H., de Bruijn R., and Tomazic D. , "Influence of Ethanol Blends on Low Speed Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged, Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines," SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants , 10, 95-105, 2017, doi: 10.4271/2017-01-0687.
- Downs, D. and Theobald, F. , “The Effect of Fuel Characteristics and Engine Operating Conditions on Pre-Ignition,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers: Automobile Division 178(1):89-108, 1963.
- Singh, E., Morganti, K., and Dibble, R. , “Optimizing Split Fuel Injection Strategies to Avoid Pre-Ignition and Super-Knock in Turbocharged Engines,” International Journal of Engine Research, doi:10.1177/1468087419836591.
- Zaccardi, J.-M., Duval, L., and Pagot, A. , “Development of Specific Tools for Analysis and Quantification of Pre-Ignition in a Boosted SI Engine,” 2009.
- He, Y., Liu, Z., Stahl, I., Zhang, G., and Zheng, Y. , “Comparison of Stochastic Pre-Ignition Behaviors on a Turbocharged Gasoline Engine with Various Fuels and Lubricants,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-01-2291 , 2016, doi:10.4271/2016-01-2291.
- Zaccardi, J.-M. and Serrano, D. , “A Comparative Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) Study in Downsized SI Gasoline and CI Diesel-Methane Dual Fuel Engines,” SAE International Journal of Engines 7:1931-1944, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-2688.
- Krieck, M., Günther, M., Pischinger, S., Kramer, U., and Thewes, M. , “Effects of LPG Fuel Formulations on Knock and Pre-Ignition Behavior of a DI SI Engine,” SAE International Journal of Engines 9:237-251, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1947.
- Singh, E., Hlaing, P., Shi, H., and Dibble, R.W. , “Effect of Injecting Different Fluids to Suppress Pre-Ignition,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0257 2019, doi:10.4271/2019-01-0257.
- Costanzo, V.S., Yu, X., Chapman, E., Davis, R., and Haenel, P. , “Fuel & Lubricant Effects on Stochastic Preignition,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0038 , 2019, doi:10.4271/2019-01-0038.
- Kalghatgi, G., Algunaibet, I., and Morganti, K. , “On Knock Intensity and Superknock in SI Engines,” SAE International Journal of Engines 10, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-0689.
- Dahnz, C., Han, K.-M., Spicher, U., Magar, M. et al. , “Investigations on Pre-Ignition in Highly Supercharged SI Engines,” SAE International Journal of Engines 3:214-224, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-0355.
- Clavin, P.J.C. , “Quasi-Isobaric Ignition near the Flammability Limits. Flame Balls and Self-Extinguishing Flames,” Flame 175:80-90, 2017.