This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Development of a Dedicated CNG Three-Way Catalyst Model in 1-D Simulation Platforms
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 09, 2019 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
A growing interest towards heavy-duty engines powered with NG, dictated by stringent regulations in terms of emissions, has made it essential to study a specific Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). Oxygen storage phenomena characterize the catalytic converter efficiency under real world driving operating conditions and, consequently, during strong dynamics in Air-to-Fuel ratio (AFR).
A numerical “quasi-steady” model has been set-up to simulate the chemical process inside the reactor. A dedicated experimental campaign has been performed in order to evaluate the catalyst response to a defined λ variation, thus providing the data necessary for the numerical model validation. In fact, goal of the present research activity was to investigate the effect of very fast composition transitions of the engine exhaust typical of the mentioned driving conditions (including fuel cutoffs etc.) on the catalyst performance and on related emissions.
A surface reactions kinetic mechanism, representing CH4, CO, H2 oxidation and NO reduction, has been appropriately calibrated in steady-state operation, using a step-by-step procedure all over the engine operating conditions at different AFRs. Then transient conditions were numerically reproduced, through cyclical and consecutive transitions of variable frequency between rich and lean phases.
The model includes a proper calibration of the reactions involving Cerium inside the catalyst, in order to reproduce oxygen storage and oxygen release dynamics. Monitoring the reaction rates of the adopted mechanism permitted to evaluate their impact on the exhaust stream composition in several operating conditions.
The proposed model predicts tailpipe conversion/formation of the main chemical species starting from experimental engine-out data and provides a useful tool for evaluation of the catalyst performance.
CitationDi Maio, D., Beatrice, C., Fraioli, V., Golini, S. et al., "Development of a Dedicated CNG Three-Way Catalyst Model in 1-D Simulation Platforms," SAE Technical Paper 2019-24-0074, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-24-0074.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 4]|
- Thiruvengadam, A., Besch, M., Padmanaban, V., Pradhan, S. et al. , “Natural Gas Vehicles in Heavy-Duty Transportation - A Review,” Energy Policy 122:253-259, 2018, doi:doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2018.07.052.
- Turrio-Baldassarri, L., Battistelli, C.L., Conti, L., Crebelli, R. et al. , “Evaluation of Emission Toxicity of Urban Bus Engines: Compressed Natural Gas and Comparison with Liquid Fuels,” Science of the Total Environment 355(1-3):64-77, 2006, doi:doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.02.037.
- Wahbi, A., Tsolakis, A., and Herreros, J. , “Emissions Control Technologies for Natural Gas Engines,” Natural Gas Engines 359-379, 2018, doi:10.1007/978-981-13-3307-1_13.
- Raj, B.A. , “A Review of Mobile and Stationary Source Emissions Abatement Technologies for Natural Gas Engines,” Johnson Matthey Tech 60:228-235, 2016, doi:10.1595/205651316x692554.
- Herz, R.K., Klela, J.B., and Sell, J.A. , “Dynamic Behavior of Automotive Catalysts. 2. Carbon Monoxide Conversion under Transient Air/Fuel Ratio Conditions,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev. 22:387-396, 1983, doi:10.1021/i300011a002.
- Koltsakis, G., Kandylas, I., and Stamatelos, T. , “Three-Way Catalytic Converter Modeling and Applications,” Chemical Engineering Communications. 164:153-189, 1998, doi:10.1080/00986449808912363.
- Tsinoglou, D.N., Koltsakis, G.C., and Peyton Jones, J.C. , “Oxygen Storage Modeling in Three-Way Catalytic Converters,” Industrial & engineering chemistry research 41(5):1152-1165, 2002, doi:10.1021/ie010576c.
- Montenegro, G. and Onorati, A. , “1D Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Reacting Flows inside Three-Way Catalytic Converters,” SAE Int. J. Engines 2(1):1444-1459, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-1510.
- Oh, S. and Cavendish, J. , “Transients of Monolithic Catalytic Converters: Response to Step Changes in Feedstream Temperature as Related to Controlling Automobile Emissions,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. DeV. 21:29-37, 1982, doi:10.1021/i300005a006.
- Koltsakis, G.C., Konstantinidis, P.A., and Stamatelos, A.M. , “Development and Application Range of Mathematical Models for 3-Way Catalytic Converters,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 12(2-3):161-191, 1997, doi:10.1016/S0926-3373(96)00073-2.
- Tsinoglou, D.N. and Weilenmann, M. , “A Simplified Three-Way Catalyst Model for Transient Hot-Mode Driving Cycles,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 48(4):1772-1785, 2009, doi:10.1021/ie8010325.
- Zeng, F. and Hohn, K.L. , “Modeling of Three-Way Catalytic Converter Performance with Exhaust Mixture from Natural Gas-Fueled Engines,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 182:570-579, 2016, doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2015.10.004.
- Regulation 49, “Uniform provisions concerning the measures to be taken against the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants from compression-ignition engines for use in vehicles, and the emission of gaseous pollutants from positive-ignition engines fuelled with natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas for use in vehicles”, E/ECE/324/Rev.1/Add.48/Rev.5.
- Ferri, D., Elsener, M., and Kröcher, O. , “Methane Oxidation over a Honeycomb Pd-Only Three-Way Catalyst under Static and Periodic Operation,” Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 220:67-77, 2018, doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.07.070.
- Heywood, J.B. , “Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals,” 1988.
- Holder, R., Bollig, M., Anderson, D.R., and Hochmuth, J.K. , “A Discussion on Transport Phenomena and Three-Way Kinetics of Monolithic Converters,” Chemical Engineering Science 61:8010-8027, 2006, doi:10.1016/j.ces.2006.09.030.
- Lyubovsky, M., Smith, L.L., Castaldi, M., Karim, H. et al. , “Catalytic Combustion over Platinum Group Catalysts: Fuel-Lean Versus Fuel-Rich Operation,” Catalysis Today 83(1-4):71-84, 2003, doi:10.1016/S0920-5861(03)00217-7.
- Martı´n, L., Arranz, J.L., Prieto, O., Trujillano, R. et al. , “Simulation Three-Way Catalyst Ageing: Analysis of Two Conventional Catalyst,” Appl. Catalysis B 44(1):41-52, 2003, doi:10.1016/S0926-3373(03)00008-0.