This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Studies on Characteristics of Nanoparticles Generated in a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published December 19, 2019 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Particles generated from lubricant in a gasoline direct injection (*GDI) engine were investigated in detail with the aim to understand the influence of components in lubricant on the amount of particles generated as well as their size. Analytical approach employed in this study was real-time engine tests combined with X-ray spectroscopic and electron-microscopic analyses. Real-time engine tests where particle number (PN) and particle size distribution were consecutively measured with oil consumption for lubricants with different formulas enabled us to extract information regarding lubricant-derived particles. This can be achieved only when sulfur species in lubricant are used as a “tracer” and thus, sulfur-free fuel possessing low PM Index (i.e., isooctane) needs to be used for the measurements.
It was revealed that the size of particles increased with an increase in oil consumption in the vicinity of 10 nm, and such particles were assumed to be mainly generated as a result of combustion of metal-based additives used in lubricant. Moreover, STEM-EDX images strongly indicated that the particles with a ~10 nm diameter are composed of metal oxides, sulfates and/or phosphates with Ca, Mo and/or Zn as a cation.
This study clearly suggested that novel molecular design of metal-free lubricant additives for wear-protection, detergent, and dispersant will be a key area to dramatically decrease nanoparticles smaller than ~50 nm which particularly threaten human health.
CitationTabata, K., Takahashi, M., Takeda, K., Tsurumi, K. et al., "Studies on Characteristics of Nanoparticles Generated in a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-2328, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-2328.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
- Seaton, A., et al., “Nanoparticles, Human Health Hazard and Regulation,” J. R. Soc. Interface, Vol 7, pS119-S129, 2010, doi:10.1098/rsif.2009.0252. focus
- D.B. Kittelson, “Engines and Nanoparticles: A Review,” J. Aerosol Sci., Vol 29, No 5/6, p575-588, 1998
- Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/646 of 20 April 2016 amending Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 as regards emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 6)
- Y. Fujitani et al., “Study of Particulate Matter Emissions from Direct Injection Gasoline Passenger Cars and Latest Diesel Car and Their Atmospheric Impact,” NIES Res. Proj. Rep., No.123, 2017
- Y. Kiya, et al., “Analytical Approach for Identifying Sources of Microparticles Generated in a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine,”JSAE Proc., No 20185038, 2018
- L. Pirjola, et al., “Effects of Fresh Lubricant Oils on Particle Emissions Emitted by a Modern Gasoline Direct Injection Passenger Car,” Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol 49, p3644-3652, 2015, doi:10.1021/es505109u
- T. Ronkko, et al., “Vehicle Engines Produce Exhaust Nanoparticles Even When Not Fueled,” Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol 48, p2043-2050, 2014, doi:10.1021/es405687m
- H. Inagaki et al., “Influences of Lubricating Oil Consumption on PM Emission in Gasoline Engine,”JSAE Proc., No 20095284, 2009
- S. Murakami, et al., “Application of Real-time Total Sulfur Analysis with UVF Method to Oil Consumption Measurement,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-2062, 2007, doi:10.4271/ 2007-01-2062
- Y. Otsuki et al., “Evaluation of Exhaust Particle Emissions from a DI Diesel Engine Using a Solid Particle Counting System with Direct Sampling Unit,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-2057, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-2057
- Certificate of Analysis , "Standard Reference Material® 2783,” National Institute of Standard and Technology, Issue Date: December 13 2011
- K. Aikawa, et al., “Development of a Predictive Model for Gasoline Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions," Vol 3, SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr., 2010-01-2115, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-2115