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Evaluation of Water Injection Strategies for NOx Reduction and Charge Cooling in SI Engines
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published December 19, 2019 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Water injection in spark-ignition engines is one key technology for increasing power, improving fuel efficiency by mitigating knock and meeting future emission standards and is extensively researched today. Finding a suitable injection strategy is necessary to commercially exploit the potential of water injection. In order to evaluate water injection strategies, a better understanding of the mixture formation with water injection is required. Indirect port and direct water injection strategies were compared by highly time resolved in-cylinder water concentration and temperature measurements using an optical spark plug probe. The ignition conditions, mixture formation and performance were assessed in a single cylinder research engine equipped with water injection technology. Variations of engine speed, water/fuel ratio and water injection timing were performed and the effects on exhaust gas temperature and engine-out emissions analyzed in detail. At different operating points, a comparison of direct and indirect water injection concepts was made with regard to mixture formation. The spark plug probe enabled a local assessment of the ignition conditions near the spark. Furthermore, a water efficiency number could be obtained by measuring the in-cylinder temperature directly. In conclusion, a better understanding of water injection is reached and optimum water injection strategies in terms of NOx reduction and charge cooling are derived.
CitationKauf, M., Gern, M., and Seefeldt, S., "Evaluation of Water Injection Strategies for NOx Reduction and Charge Cooling in SI Engines," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-2164, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-2164.
Data Sets - Support Documents
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