This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Design of a Wing for Formula One Category Airplanes
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 19, 2019 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Event: AeroTech Americas
This paper describes the design of an International Formula One (IF1) racing airplane wing. The first step consists in the simulation of the airplane flying on the race track to obtain details about the condition in which the wing needs to be designed and optimized. The paper describes the details and formulation used to perform this simulation using parametric flight paths and a point model dynamic model. A scheme analytically obtains the control laws for the simulation with Frenet-Serret frames over the parametric flight path. Two different airplanes, with different power levels, are simulated on a typical IF1 race track to determine the range of lift coefficient in which the wing must be designed. Based on this lift coefficient range, a set of four new airfoils are designed based on the NLF0414-F airfoil. Their usage over the wing span is determined, using nonlinear lifting line method to assure that during races the wing operates inside the laminar drag bucket. Finally, this paper describes some details of the wing structural design and fabrication, as well as comparisons with predicted performance and actual performance results of two pilots during National Championship Air Races.
CitationAndrade de Oliveira, P., "Design of a Wing for Formula One Category Airplanes," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1337, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1337.
- Boor, C.D., A Practical Guide to Splines (Springer-Verlag, 1978).
- Plas, H.V. and Visser, H., “Trajectory Optimization of an Aerobatic Air Race,” in 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, AIAA, Orlando, 2009, 1-14.
- Walden, R., “Aircraft Trajectory Optimization by Curvature Control,” Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences (Berlin/Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag, 1987), 147-156.
- Kreyszig, E., “Theory of Curves in 3-Dimensions,” Differential Geometry (New York: Dover Publications, 1991).
- Serret, J., “Sur Quelques Formules Relatives à La Théorie Des Intégrales Eulériennes,” Journal de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées 8:489-494, 1843.
- Frenet, F., “Sur Les Courbes à Double Courbure,” Journal de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées 17:437-447, 1852.
- Glover, W. and Lygeros, J., “A Multi-Aircraft Model for Conflict Detection and Resolution Algorithm Evaluation,” Computer1-49, 2004.
- Kinoshita, T. and Imado, F., “The Application of an UAV Flight Simulator - The Development of a New Point Mass Model for an Aircraft,” in 2006 SICE-ICASE International Joint Conference, IEEE, Bexco, 2006, 4378-4383.
- Nusyirwan, I.F. and Bil, C., “Stochastic Trajectory Optimisation for Aircraft in Air Combat,” Simulation Industry Association of Australia.
- LI, X.R. and JILKOV, V.P., “Survey of Maneuvering Target Tracking. Part I: Dynamic Models,” IEEE Transactions On Aerospace And Electronic Systems 39, 2003.
- Viken, J.K., Viken, S.A., and Pfenninger, W., “Design of the Low-Speed NLF(1)-0414F and the High-Speed HSNLF(1)-0213 Airfoils with High-Lift Systems,” https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900003224, visited on June 10, 2018.
- Murri, D.G., Mcghee, R.J., Jordan, F.L. Jr., Davis, P.J. et al., “Wind Tunnel Results of the Low-Speed NLF(1)-0414F Airfoil,” Research in Natural Laminar Flow and Laminar-Flow Control, Part 3, 673-696.
- Thomas, F. and Milgram, J., Fundamentals of Sailplane Design Third Edition (College Park Press, 1999).
- International Formula One Technical Rules, 2011, http://www.if1airracing.com/images/Documents/ IF1_Technical_Rules_Rev2011.pdf, visited on June 10, 2018.