This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Development of Evaluation Methods for Steering Loss of Assist
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 2, 2019 by SAE International in United States
This content contains downloadable datasetsAnnotation ability available
Loss of power steering assist (LoA) is viewed as a potential hazard in certain vehicle operational scenarios. Despite the importance of this steering failure mode, few published test protocols for the objective or subjective evaluation of vehicle performance in a loss of assist situation exist.
The first part of this paper examines five of the key steering failure modes that can result in LoA and discusses why LoA persists as a key industry challenge. The second part analyzes the situational dynamics affecting vehicle controllability during a LoA event and proposes a subjective evaluation driving course that facilitates evaluations in various LoA scenarios. A corresponding objective test procedure and metric is also proposed. These evaluation methods support consistent performance evaluation of physical vehicles while also enabling the prediction of vehicle characteristics early in the vehicle development process (VDP). The final section of this paper gives an overview of a steering system design method aimed at first classifying the level of risk associated with any LoA induced hazard (Automotive Safety Integrity Level - ASIL) and then taking appropriate software, electronic, mechanical, or manufacturing design controls to improve system robustness and minimize the likelihood of LoA field occurrences.
CitationBadiru, I., Boatman, V., Gornick, S., Latouf, B. et al., "Development of Evaluation Methods for Steering Loss of Assist," SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-1236, 2019, https://doi.org/10.4271/2019-01-1236.
Data Sets - Support Documents
|[Unnamed Dataset 1]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 2]|
|[Unnamed Dataset 3]|
- IHS Automotive Supplier Insight, “Power Steering Systems Market Report,” Chassis Service - August 2017 Update.
- Hill, F.W. and Lawrence, A.P., “Unexpected Power Steering Failure Study,” GM Publication, Nov. 1969.
- Ellims, M., Monkhouse, H., Harty, D., and Gade, T., “Using Vehicle Simulation to Investigate Controllability,” SAE Int. J. Alt. Power. 2(1):18-36, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0180.
- Shimizu, Y. and Kawai, T., “Development of Electric Power Steering,” SAE Technical Paper 910014, 1991, doi:10.4271/910014.
- Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, “Vehicle Mass over Time,” https://www.iihs.org/iihs/topics/t/vehicle-size-and-weight/topicoverview, accessed Aug. 2009.
- Harbluk, J., Burns P., Malone D., and Hamilton J., “Power Steering Assist Failures: Driver Behavior, Safety Impacts, and Implications for Automated Vehicles,” in Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 58th Annual Meeting - 2014.
- Zhang, D., Lin, B., Kirli, A., and Okwudire, C., “Reduction of Steering Effort in the Event of EPAS Failure Using Differential Braking Assisted Steering,” SAE Int. J. Trans. Safety 5(2):227-233, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-1489.
- Badiru, I., “Customer Focus in EPS Steering Feel Development,” SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 7(3):1009-1015, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-0148.
- Badawy, A., Bolourchi, F., and Gaut, S., “The Design and Benefits of Electric Power Steering,” SAE Technical Paper 973041, 1997, doi:10.4271/973041.
- Switkes, P.J., Gerdes, J.C., Schmidt, G.F., and Kiss, M., “Driver Response to Steering Torque Disturbances: A User Study an Assisted Lanekeeping,” Advances in Automotive Control 5(1).
- ISO 26262-5 “Road Vehicles - Functional Safety,” Part 5: Product Development at the Hardware Level, 2011.
- Neukum, A., Ufer, E., Paulig, J., Kruger, H.P., “Controllability of Superposition Steering System Failures,” Steering Tech, 2008, Munchen.
- Lechner, D. and Perrin, C., “The Actual Use of the Dynamic Performances of Vehicles,” Proc. of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Pt.D. Journal of Automobile Engineering. 207(D4):249-256, 1993, doi:10.1243/PIME_PROC_1993_207_190_02.
- Klauer, S. G., Dingus, T. A., Neale, V. L., Sudweeks, J. D., et al., “Comparing Real-World Behaviors of Drivers with High Versus Low Rates of Crashes and Near-Crashes.” Technical Report No. DOT HS 811 091. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
- Michigan Department of Transportation, “Road Design Manual,” 2018.
- A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets Sixth Edition (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 2011). ISBN:978-1-56051-508-1.
- ECE Rev. 1/Add. 78/Rev. 2, “Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Vehicles with Regard to Steering Equipment,” Feb. 2017.
- Yu, J. and Johnson, M., “Vehicle Dynamics Simulation for Predicting Steering Power-off Limit Performance,” SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 1(1):498-503, 2009, doi:10.4271/2008-01-0587.
- Pfeffer, P. and Harrer, M., “On-Centre Steering Wheel Torque Characteristics during Steady State Cornering,” SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-0502, 2008, doi:10.4271/2008-01-0502.
- Zagorski, S., Ushimura, T., and Post, J., “Development of an Electric-Based Power Steering System,” SAE Int. J. Commer. Veh. 8(1):88-101, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-1567.
- SAE International Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice, “Considerationsfor ISO 26262 ASIL Hazard Classification,” SAE Standard J2980, Rev. April 2018.
- Amberkar, S., Kushion, M., Eschtruth, K., and Bolourchi, F., “Diagnostic Development for an Electric Power Steering System,” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-0819, 2000, doi:10.4271/2000-01-0819.