Evaluation of occupant kinematics in low- to moderate-speed frontal and rear-end motor vehicle collisions
To be published on April 2, 2019 by SAE International in United States
Low- to moderate speed motor vehicle collisions are a common roadway occurrence and a frequent source of injury complaints. Understanding occupant motion (kinematics) in response to low- and moderate-speed motor vehicle collisions is important for evaluating occupant interactions with interior vehicle structures, including the restraint systems, with the ultimate goal of assessing injury potential. Furthermore, quantitative occupant kinematic data from full scale crash testing of late model passenger vehicles is limited in the low- to moderate speed regime. The current study reports kinematic data from full scale frontal and rear end crash tests of late model, mid size sedans with delta Vs ranging from 6.0 to 19.0 kph (3.7 to 11.8 mph) and 5.3 to 19.5 kph (3.3 to 12.1 mph), respectively. For each test vehicle, the motion of a Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) restrained in the driver’s seat was recorded using high speed onboard video. Motion tracking of the video was used to evaluate excursions and excursion velocities of the ATD’s head, shoulder, elbow, and knee with respect to the vehicle interior. For both the frontal and rear end collisions, the maximum excursion and excursion velocity of the ATD with respect to the occupant compartment generally increased with increasing delta V. During the rebound phase of the rear end collisions, the maximum excursion and excursion velocity of the ATD also generally increased with increasing delta V, and was generally less than its initial rearward excursion and excursion velocity.